Biological Theories of Sexual Assault
However, over time a darkness infested the relationship. are likely similar to those within the breakup phase of a non-abusive relationship. . in the impact of social support on psychological and biological stress responses. Domestic Violence, v .. For example, some proponents of biological theories argue that because men cannot control their L.R. (); Randy Thornhill, The Biology of Human Rape, 39 Jurimetrics J. , (). Keywords: Intimate partner violence, biological factors, neuropsychology, intimate partner violence, relationship abuse, and relationship aggression, with.
Once this vulnerability is identified it becomes necessary to abstain or at least moderate from addictive substances and activities.
Treatment provides education that helps people to understand and accept their genetic predisposition. There is a heightened emphasis on the importance of abstinence. Questions for personal reflection from biological theory: Would it be valuable to understand my family and genetic history? Would it be wise to consider my history of failed attempts at moderation? This information would help me appreciate that I might react differently than other people to addictive substances or activities.
Wouldn't this knowledge help me to understand why these addictive substances or activities are so enjoyable? This explains why my cravings are so difficult to resist. The motivation to attack is aimed at punishing the transgressor; it would be maladaptive if the individual attacked any convenient target. Only by attacking the transgressor successfully or otherwise restoring equity does systolic blood pressure—the measure of anger used in much of this research—fall.
What sorts of offense provoke angry aggression in humans? Violent attacks are often precipitated by being treated in ways contrary to one's biological interests. Losing a mate is often a disaster to one's success in raising offspring, so it is not surprising that various mate-guarding behaviors to prevent such an outcome have evolved in pair-bonding species. But mate guarding is not identical in the sexes Wright, Women in many cultures guard their sexual reputations assiduously; women may fear desertion by their mates and loss of the man's contributions.
Subfields of psychology - Wikipedia
Consistent with this perspective, most fights between adolescent girls in a low-income neighborhood were found to stem from sexual insults Campbell, What about aggression directed against one's own children—how can this be explained in evolutionary terms? Doubtless, like all other mammals, humans have evolved parental tendencies. However, parental behavior has evolved to benefit one's own offspring, not those of others. Animals and people are more solicitous of their own flesh and blood than of others' offspring Hepper, For example, the risk of child homicide by stepparents was about times that by biological parents in a U.
Furthermore, children who are handicapped and, consequently, less likely to be reproductively successful themselves, are more prone to abuse and infanticide. In many mammals the mother assesses her newborns, and abandons those that appear abnormal. Likewise, the stimulus characteristics of abnormal babies may cause their parents to bond less strongly to them, and not breastfeed them. These instances of abuse and homicide of children also may be conceptualized as occurring because the adult has been angered by the child.
Biological Causes Of Addiction
Child abuse often occurs when the adult has been angered by the child's behavior, especially when the parent has unrealistic expectations of the child's abilities. But to some extent the child's abilities may be poorly developed because of a congenital condition, so parental genes may be involved.
As described above, we also serve our biological interests by aiding and defending other relatives with whom we share genes by common descent. For example, identical twins, who share all of their genes, have been shown to cooperate more than fraternal twins in a test situation Segal, Thus, it is not surprising that the relatives of a murder victim are often infuriated at the perpetrator.
The other side of this nepotism coin is that we are liable to aggress against nonkin. In this research the aggression of initial interest was violent crime, which may involve various types of aggression.
In this case no attempt was made to identify these types of aggression. Instead, the emphasis was on the role of kinship in the cross-generational perpetuation of criminal aggression. A triracial sample of Detroit felons was studied.
As predicted, these men tended to report that, as children, they had had poor relationships with their mothers: Therefore, a cycle of criminality might be perpetuated across generations involving these family dynamics, as follows: Anxiously attached children might become criminals and have unstable romantic lives, leading to another generation of children from unstable families. Many of these children would grow up in families with rivalrous half-siblings and stepsiblings of low consangunity.
Their mother might resort to frequent punishment to settle these disputes, resulting in the pattern of anxious attachment that is associated with this parental style. Furthermore, the fathers might make little positive contribution due to family instability. Further supporting the model, maternal punitiveness and paternal inattentiveness were both associated with number of convictions. Data by other researchers confirm these relationships between variables.
This study points out the importance of kinship in violence and—more broadly—of evolutionary principles in the study of behavior.
It also illustrates the interaction of presumably evolved affinities for close kin with experiential factors such as maternal punitiveness, paternal inattentiveness, and family structure. Of course, other environmental factors such as role models, television exposure, and unemployment also affect violent tendencies. But these seem to interact with biologically based processes too, such as parent-child bonding. Take poverty for instance.
In a sample of college students, Aytch and Weisfeld found that lower-income families tended to have more anxiously attached children. Presumably, typical circumstances associated with low-income families interfere with the parent-child bonding process. In the sample of male offenders, those subjects who were anxiously attached were found to have more felony convictions. Poverty also tends to lower the marriage rate and hence undercut family integrity, thus contributing to the number of violence-prone men Wilson, Implications for Intervention The extent to which evolutionary and experiential factors influence aggressive behavior is of great concern to both developmental and forensic psychologists.
The aforementioned findings demonstrate the influences of genes on human aggression. Therefore, we cannot hope to make much progress in reducing aggression without taking these factors into account. For instance, intervention programs to reduce violence have focused primarily on removing violent offenders from society. However, in spite of increased allocation of resources for detaining violent offenders, the number of offenders convicted and incarcerated each year steadily increases.
These anxiously attached children exhibit an increased propensity toward criminal behavior when they reach adulthood. Based on these findings, efforts to stabilize families in ways that enhance the long-term viability of marital relationships i. If such interventions prove to be successful, there may be as well a substantial drop in the number of successive generations of children from unstable families that seem to perpetuate a cycle of cross-generational families with similar dynamics.
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The psychobiology of aggression. An ethological view of human conflict and social interaction. Counselors are primarily clinicians, using psychotherapy and other interventions in order to treat clients. Traditionally, counseling psychology has focused more on normal developmental issues and everyday stress rather than psychopathology, but this distinction has softened over time.
Counseling psychologists are employed in a variety of settings, including universities, hospitals, schools, governmental organizations, businesses, private practice, and community mental health centers. Developmental psychology Mainly focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age.
This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Researchers who study children use a number of unique research methods to make observations in natural settings or to engage them in experimental tasks. Such tasks often resemble specially designed games and activities that are both enjoyable for the child and scientifically useful, and researchers have even devised clever methods to study the mental processes of small infants.
In addition to studying children, developmental psychologists also study aging and processes throughout the life span, especially at other times of rapid change such as adolescence and old age. Developmental psychologists draw on the full range of theorists in scientific psychology to inform their research. Educational psychology Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.
The work of child psychologists such as Lev VygotskyJean Piaget and Jerome Bruner has been influential in creating teaching methods and educational practices.
Educational psychology is often included in teacher education programs, at least in North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Environmental psychology Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. The field defines the term environment broadly, encompassing natural environmentssocial settingsbuilt environmentslearning environmentsand informational environments.
Since its conception, the field has been committed to the development of a discipline that is both value oriented and problem oriented, prioritizing research aiming at solving complex environmental problems in the pursuit of individual well-being within a larger society.
Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology explores the evolutionary roots of mental and behavioral patterns, and posits that common patterns may have emerged because they were highly adaptive for humans in the environments of their evolutionary past—even if some of these patterns are maladaptive in today's environments. Fields closely related to evolutionary psychology are animal behavioral ecologyhuman behavioral ecologydual inheritance theoryand sociobiology.
Evolutionary psychology is distinct from, although related to, behavioral genetics. Memeticsfounded by Richard Dawkinsis a related but competing field  that proposes that cultural evolution can occur in a Darwinian sense but independently of Mendelian mechanisms; it therefore examines the ways in which thoughts, or memesmay evolve independently of genes.
Forensic psychology Forensic psychology applies psychology to legal casescovering a broad range of practices including the clinical evaluations of defendantsreports to judges and attorneys, and courtroom testimony on given issues. Forensic psychologists are appointed by the court or hired by attorneys to evaluate defendants' competency to stand trial, competency to be executed, sanity, and need for involuntary commitment. Forensic psychologists provide sentencing recommendations, evaluate sex offenders and treatments, and provide recommendations to the court through written reports and testimony.
Many of the questions the court asks the forensic psychologist go ultimately to legal issuesalthough a psychologist cannot answer legal questions. For example, there is no definition of sanity in psychology.
Rather, sanity is a legal definition that varies from place to place throughout the world. Therefore, a prime qualification of a forensic psychologist is an intimate understanding of the law, especially criminal law.
Health psychology Health psychology is the application of psychological theory and research to health, illness and health care. Whereas clinical psychology focuses on mental health and neurological illness, health psychology is concerned with the psychology of a much wider range of health-related behavior including healthy eating, the doctor-patient relationship, a patient's understanding of health information, and beliefs about illness.
Health psychologists may be involved in public health campaigns, examining the impact of illness or health policy on quality of life and in research into the psychological impact of health and social care. Industrial and organizational psychology Industrial and organizational psychology I-O applies psychological concepts and methods to optimize human potential in the workplace.
Personnel psychology, a subfield of I-O psychology, applies the methods and principles of psychology in selecting and evaluating workers.