BBC - History - British History in depth: The Hidden Story of Partition and its Legacies
Independent Pakistan inherited India's longest and at the division of India, Pakistan won a poor share of the colonial. Implications for Indo-Pak Relations. Aswini K Ray. Too much is being expected, too soon of the new civilian regime in Pakistan. There are important historical. Partition of India and Pakistan 70 years on – share your stories. Read more. He is not This part of British colonial history is not well-known. South Asian history an ancestral home. A physical connection to a time gone by.
Partition was followed by war with India over Kashmir and the mass migration of Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs to resettle within the new borders, an upheaval which led to violence, financial loss and death on a large scale. Jinnah, who is honoured as the Quaid-i-Azam, or great leader, died in InPakistan became a federal republic.
It has been under military rule for long periods. Inmartial law was declared and political parties abolished. However, failure to win the war against India and accusations of nepotism and corruption undermined his position. Ayub Khan resigned in and power was taken over by General Yahya Khan, who in December held the first national elections in independent Pakistan.
As a result of the military intervention that ensued, civil war broke out in the eastern region in ; the Indian army intervened in support of the Bengalis; Pakistan forces withdrew and Bangladesh became an independent state. In Pakistan withdrew from the Commonwealth but rejoined in Under a new constitution introduced inBhutto became Prime Minister. He undertook agrarian reform and the nationalisation of large sections of industry and the financial sector. In July the army, under General Zia ul-Haq, intervened in the urban unrest.
Zia declared martial law and arrested Bhutto who was convicted, after a controversial trial, of conspiring to murder a political opponent. Despite international appeals, he was hanged in April Zia promised elections within 90 days, but ruled without them until his death. He assumed the presidency and embarked on a programme of Islamisation.
India, Pakistan's independence: The story behind one of history's greatest mass migrations - CNN
The National Assembly was dissolved and a caretaker leader installed until Islami Jamhoori Ittehad led by Nawaz Sharif won a decisive election victory in October Sharif pursued economic reforms and privatisation and instituted Sharia Islamic law until when President and Prime Minister resigned under pressure from the military, making way for fresh elections which brought Benazir Bhutto back to power by a small majority. In NovemberPresident Sardar Farooq Khan Leghari, prompted by the army high command and opposition leaders, used the eighth amendment to the constitution, and dissolved the National Assembly, bringing down the Bhutto government and alleging corruption, financial incompetence, and human rights violations.
New elections were held in February He also took over from the President the power to appoint Supreme Court judges and military chiefs-of-staff. In OctoberSharif ordered the dismissal of Army Chief of Staff General Pervez Musharraf, and refused permission to land for the commercial aircraft in which he was returning to Karachi from an official visit to Sri Lanka.
Musharraf justified his actions as necessary to restore both the economy and the deteriorating political situation. Kashmir The dispute with India over Kashmir escalated sharply inwhen militants with Pakistani military support crossed the Line of Control at Kargil and engaged in major battles with Indian forces.
More than 1, people were killed in the fighting. In JulyPakistan finally agreed to withdraw from Indian-controlled territory, but the state of tension, which had been heightened by the nuclear testing of India had detonated five nuclear devices on 11 and 13 May and Pakistan responded with six on 28 and 30 Maypersisted. Although there was no substantive outcome, this first face-to-face meeting between leaders of the two countries since was characterised by a new interest on both sides in seeking a resolution to this long- standing problem.
However, by May India had mobilised a vast army along the Line of Control and the two countries were again on the brink of war. Tellingly, although Pakistan celebrated its independence on 14 August and India on 15 Augustthe border between the two new states was not announced until 17 August.
It was hurriedly drawn up by a British lawyer, Cyril Radcliffe, who had little knowledge of Indian conditions and with the use of out-of-date maps and census materials. Communities, families and farms were cut in two, but by delaying the announcement the British managed to avoid responsibility for the worst fighting and the mass migration that had followed.
The Hidden Story of Partition and its Legacies
Top Tensions in India Many have wondered why the British and Indian leaders did not delay until a better deal over borders could have been agreed. One explanation is that in the months and years immediately following World War Two, leaders on all sides were losing control and were keen to strike a deal before the country descended into chaos. Immediately before World War Two, India was ravaged by the impact of the Great Depression, bringing mass unemployment. This created tremendous tensions exacerbated during the war by inflation and food grain shortages.
Rationing was introduced in Indian cities and in Bengal a major famine developed in The resulting discontent was expressed in widespread violence accompanying the Congress party's 'Quit India' campaign of - a violence only contained by the deployment of 55 army battalions. The last months of British rule were marked by a naval mutiny, wage strikes and successful demonstrations in every major city.
With the cessation of hostilities, the battalions at the disposal of the government in India were rapidly diminished.Remembering Partition: 70 years since India-Pakistan divide
At the same time, the infrastructure of the Congress Party, whose entire leadership was imprisoned due to their opposition to the war, had been dismantled. The Muslim League, which co-operated with the British, had rapidly increased its membership, yet still had very limited grassroots level organisation. This was dramatically revealed on the 16 Augustwhen Jinnah called for a 'Direct Action Day' by followers of the League in support of the demand for Pakistan.
The day had dissolved into random violence and civil disruption across north India, with thousands of lives lost.
Partition of India - Wikipedia
This was interpreted by the British as evidence of the irreconcilable differences between Hindus and Muslims. In reality, the riots were evidence as much of a simple lack of military and political control as they were of social discord. Further evidence of the collapse of government authority was to be seen in the Princely State of Hyderabad, where a major uprising occurred in the Telengana region, and with the Tebhaga 'two-thirds' agitation among share-cropping cultivators in north Bengal.
A leading role was played in both by the Communist Party of India. Elsewhere, the last months of British rule were marked by a naval mutiny, wage strikes and successful demonstrations in every major city. In all of these conflicts the British colonial government remained aloof, as it concentrated on the business of negotiating a speedy transfer of power. Top Hopes for Pakistan Strong support for the idea of an independent Pakistan came from large Muslim landowning families in the Punjab and Sindh, who saw it as an opportunity to prosper within a captive market free from competition.
Support also came from the poor peasantry of East Bengal, who saw it as an opportunity to escape from the clutches of moneylenders - often Hindu. Both were to be disappointed. Independent Pakistan inherited India's longest and strategically most problematic borders. The heartland of support for the Muslim League lay in Uttar Pradesh, which was not included within Pakistan.
The economy of Pakistan was chiefly agricultural, and controlled by feudal elites. Once the army had been paid, nothing was left over for the purposes of economic development. The great advantage enjoyed by the Indian National Congress was that it had worked hard for 40 years to reconcile differences and achieve some cohesion among its leaders.
The heartland of support for the Muslim League, however, lay in central north India Uttar Pradesh which was not included within Pakistan. Muslims from this region had to flee westwards and compete with resident populations for access to land and employment, leading to ethnic conflict, especially in Sindh. Top Post-partition and conflict over Kashmir The death of Muhammed Ali Jinnah inthe conflict with India over the Princely State of Kashmir which both countries claimed at independenceas well as ethnic and religious differences within Pakistan itself, all combined to stymie early attempts to agree on a constitution and an effectively functioning civil administration.
This failure paved the way for a military takeover of the government in and later on, a civil war in This saw the division of the country and the creation of the separate state of Bangladesh.