Cuba–Russia relations - Wikipedia
HAVANA (Reuters) - Boxy Russian-built Lada automobiles still rattle around Cuba, growing more decrepit by the year, a reminder of vanished. Protests in the Russian republic of Ingushetia have not died down for two Such relationships enable further Chechen intrusion into Ingush. Cite as, Minorities at Risk Project, Chronology for Chechens in Russia, , .. He would be responsible for relations with Moscow in Chechnya's new.
Chechnya's outside interests included the Caucasus and Russia, where Chechens would always be able to stir up some trouble. Raduyev's organization claimed responsibility for bombing incidents in Russia in bbc.
The Russian Congress of Vainakhs is a public and political movement, created two years ago, which represents the interests of someChechens and Ingushs living outside their historic motherland. The Chechen parliament is planned to discuss a number of problems which worry Chechen communities in the federation. Economic assistance of the Chechen diasporas in the restoration of Chechen economy is another issue to be discussed itar-tass.
In a statement circulated by his press-service, Maskhadov said that parliament impeded the president's activity by canceling his decrees and overcoming his veto. The statement also pointed out that the deputies were guided by the constitution which set the target of building a secular democratic state. According to the statement, parliament was trying to meddle with the discussion on state construction and its transition to Islamic state bbc.
Never in my life will I sign a document providing for dependence on Russia whatever form it may take," he said and added "nobody in Chechnya would let me do that" bbc. Speaking at a press conference Abdulatipov said "one cannot live at the end of the 20th century in the Caucasus and speak of some Islamic state. Raduyev said that the terrorist action against Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze had been made by militants from the Army of Gen Dudayev.
He did not explain what was the linkage between Shevardnadze and the death of the former Chechen president bbc. Speaking at a rally in Groznyy attended by people Raduyev said that "the assassination attempt against Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze was carried out by Georgian patriots, followers of Georgia's first president, Zviad Gamsakhurdia".
Raduyev explained his words about his involvement in the attack on the Georgian leader by the fact that he was "the general secretary of the international public and political organization Caucasian Home", of which Raduyev's Georgian friends were members" bbc.
Raduyev was relieved for actions incompatible with the rules of the organization and for numerous provocative political statements made on behalf of the organization. The decision to sack Raduyev was made at a conference of the Caucasian confederation in Groznyy. The former vice-president of Chechnya, Said-Khasan Abumuslimov said that the conference passed a resolution condemning Raduyev's acts of provocation.
The Caucasian confederation was established on 5th September by the former presidents of Chechnya and Georgia, Dzhokhar Dudayev and Zviad Gamsakhurdia. It brings together public and political movements of the North Caucasus republics, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Its current president is Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev, a former president of Chechnya bbc.
Maskhadov expressed his determination to make Russia pay compensation for damage inflicted on Chechnya as a result of the war bbc. The Supreme Shari'ah Court said that the peace agreement signed on 12th May by Russia and Chechnya "shall be observed by all residents of the Chechen Republic and by the state as a whole, including the president", because the agreement " benefits both sides and does not contradict the Shari'ah norms" bbc.
Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov addressed the congress calling on the peoples of Dagestan, Chechnya and the whole Caucasus for consolidation and unity. He claimed that the presence of Russian troops in the North Caucasus destabilized the regional public- political situation.
The congress became a permanent body with a chairman, deputies and staff. Vlasov was abducted on the border between Chechnya and Ingushetia. Maskhadov instructed all law-enforcement agencies to identify the organizers and perpetrators of the crime and to take steps to set Vlasov free.Feature History - Chechen Wars (1/2)
The rally demanded finding the criminals who carried out the kidnapping of the Russian envoy in Chechnya. The population of the District made an address to the Russian and Chechen presidents, saying that such crimes had political implications and were aimed at destabilizing the situation in the District and disrupting Russo- Chechen relations.
Raduyev was not given this opportunity. The government sent special troops to the city hall, where the TV center was located. Khultygov was a former brigadier-general and commander in one of the subunits which fought against the Russian army.
He was an active supporter of Aslan Maskhadov.
Refworld | World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Russian Federation : Chechens
Dzhafarov was a colonel in Raduyev's forces. The state of emergency was introduced from midnight on 24th June until 15th July. The curfew would operate from Maskhadov noted that emergency measures were imposed to step up the struggle against criminal groups, above all, against criminals engaged in kidnapping bbc. Presidential spokesman Vachagayev said that the authorities would not tolerate the outrage committed by the Wahhabis and were banning all their armed formations, public and political movements, newspapers and some television programs on Chechen territory.
Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov criticized Wahhabism and called on people to organize counteractions against Wahabism bbc. According to Pain, this is evidenced by the fact that the Gudermes group, "against which President Aslan Maskhadov and the Chechen armed forces are taking actions", is not limited to the Chechen Republic alone.
Even during hostilities inthe group was active in the neighboring regions of Dagestan populated by Akin Chechens. Therefore, Pain contends, "struggle against the Gudermes group and, simultaneously, against Wahhabism will inevitably affect the neighboring regions in Dagestan" bbc. According to a number of media reports, Chechnya's foreign minister has proposed to his counterpart in the Taleban administration to establish political and diplomatic relations and open diplomatic missions in Kabul and Groznyy bbc.
He stressed that the murder was connected with an attempt to influence the situation in the republic bbc. The task of the Center of Public and Political Parties and Movements was "to pool efforts to make the leadership of the republic strictly obey the constitution and other laws bbc.
He said that the founders of the hundreds of parties registered in Chechnya pursued purely mercenary objectives that were far from public interests.
The mufti said that advocates of Wahhabism were enemies of Islam and the Chechen people. They "are fanning domestic conflicts and pushing Chechens to interfere in Dagestan".
Mufti Khadzhi-Akhmad Kadyrov urged the president and parliament to immediately expel from Chechnya foreign emissaries spreading Islamic teachings alien to the Chechen people bbc. However, Russia is not making timely payments for the protection and maintenance of the pipeline on Chechen territory", Chechen president added. The sides stressed the need to resolve all contentious matters by peaceful means.
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- Chronology for Chechens in Russia
Basayev proposed that a unified domestic and foreign policy be fashioned, based on the Shari'ah. The meeting decided to set up a consultative council that would involve all interested sociopolitical forces and work out a unified state policy itar-tass. The rally aimed to mark the seventh anniversary of Dudayev's inauguration. It was attended by Chechnya's leaders, including President Aslan Maskhadov and Dudayev's relatives and friends bbc. Mairbek Vachagayevpress secretary of President Aslan Maskhadov said that the plan did not imply a state of emergency and that there would be no restrictions of the constitutional rights of citizens.
Vachagayev said that the plan targeted groups specialized in kidnapping of people and theft of petrochemicals". President Maskhadov believed that if crime was not suppressed, there would be no investments nor restoration of the economy or the social sphere. Mairbek Vachagayev observed however that the special plan was not linked either with the activity of the organizers of the Chechen people' national congress, or with Salman Raduyev's attempts to inflame Chechnya's domestic political situation by defying the Supreme Shari'ah Court's verdict which had found him guilty and sentenced to four years in prison bbc.
The Chechen constitution stipulates a five-year presidential term. Maskhadov was elected in early Regarding opposition military commanders Salman Raduyev, Shamil Basayev and Khunkar Israpilov, President Aslan Maskhadov said that "he made maximum effort to convert them into allies" bbc. According to him the criminals who committed the crime were acting on an order from foreign special services.
The large-scale operation in the North Caucasus republic would be implemented after certain consultations with Russia's security and law-enforcement structures, Soslambekov announced bbc.
Parliament requested President Maskhadov's attendance. The deputies would discuss the decision of the Supreme Shari'ah Court suspending parliament's work and dismissing speaker Ruslan Alikhadzhiyev. Parliamentarians may vote for replacing members of the court, Alikhadzhiyev said bbc.
The conference aimed to discuss ways of overcoming the current social and political crisis in Chechnya which had begun in mid with government's incapability of performing its duties, and which had entered a new cycle in late December with the Supreme Shari'ah Court dismissing the parliament chairman and suspending the parliament itself.
The so-called commanders' council, comprised of field commanders Salman Raduyev, Shamil Basayev and Khunkar -Pasha Israpilov, insisted on Maskhadov's resignation bbc.
A special commission was set to carry out these tasks. Maskhadov announced that the commission, chaired by the Chechen head of state, decided to create "an Islamic Council" in the republic, consisting of learned religious figures and well- known Chechen theologians.
The council would have to settle all disputable issues only on the basis of Shari'ah norms bbc. The Chechen leadership came under serious criticism on behalf of the Chechen opposition over the Stavropol trial of Taymaskhanova and Dadasheva.
The opposition believed that the president and government failed to help the two girls, who were citizens of Ichkeria bbc. Maskhadov said that the three generals who openly opposed him "will soon come to realize their mistakes". Maskhadov also said that he saw the absence of war in the republic as his main achievement and that his goal was to construct an Islamic state bbc. Maskhadov hoped that Shari'ah rule would help him fight successfully the crime in the republic.
Analysts noted that Maskhadov violated the Chechen constitution passed at Dudayev's time by defining Chechnya as an Islamic state. Analysts called attention to the fact that Maskhadov intended to disband the republic's parliament legally elected in Chechen Vice-President Vakha Arsanov is expected to convene an emergency session of all Chechens who have taken part in the armed conflict of Arsanov has unequivocally demanded that Maskhadov introduce the so-called "shura" in Chechnya which would effectively mean direct rule by the council of elected field commanders bbc.
At a news conference in Groznyy, Arsanov said that under the president's decree introducing Shari'ah the post of president as well as vice-president should be abolished and the imam elected by members of the Shura council should become head of the republic bbc. Shura is a state council with consultative powers. Former President Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev, and generals Shamil Basayev, Khunkar Israpilov and Vakha Arsanov, as well as many other prominent politicians and field commanders, some of whom Maskhadov's opposes, are expected to be shura's members bbc.
The president's opponents said that Aslan Maskhadov should surrender his powers to the Shura. Independent experts in Shari'ah law took a different view.
They thought that Maskhadov was elected in strict accordance with the prescriptions of the Koran, and there were no grounds for demanding his resignation bbc. Maskhadov stressed that "only the president can speak on behalf of the people, as the people have not given anyone else that mandate". A Shura statement released today said "Making the two citizens of the Chechen Republic hostage to charges cooked up by Russian special services is a hostile action against the independent Chechen state and the Chechen nation If they the citizens are not released the Shura will have to take proper action to set Fatima Taymaskhanova and Ayset Dadasheva free".
The Chechen military leaders said that confessions were extracted from the two women "by systematic torture and threats". The decision to establish the headquarters was made at a meeting of the Shura set up by military officers and politicians bbc.
According to Udugov, the demand was issued because the leadership of the Russian Federation has staged wholesale persecution of Chechen nationals throughout Russia and sentenced Fatima Taymaskhanova and Ayset Dadasheva to long terms in prison on fabricated criminal charges bbc. Zakayev noted however that "the events on the border should not have an impact on the expected meeting between Yeltsin and Maskhadov" bbc.
Mairbek Vachagayev, Chechen President spokesman said that Akhmadov was "the only professional political analyst in Chechnya". Asked about the reasons for the change, Vachagayev said that "the foreign ministry of the Chechen republic has been useless for year and a half " bbc.
At the end ofRussia mounted a full-scale invasion of the republic in what became subsequently known as the First Chechen War. Despite vastly superior manpower, Russian military forces suffered a humiliating defeat, forcing President Yeltsin to agree to a ceasefire in and to sign a peace treaty one year later.
Conservative estimates of casualties suggest that 7, Russian combatants, 4, Chechen combatants and no less than 35, civilians died in the war. Despite the high casualties on both sides, Moscow continued to pursue a military solution to the Chechen issue while Chechens remained committed to the idea of independence. The war spilled over into neighbouring areas and frequently threatened the stability of the whole Caucasus region.
The Second Chechen war An unstable period followed in which Chechnya enjoyed a de facto but internationally unrecognized independence from Moscow. Inin response to Chechen raids into Dagestan, and the alleged blowing up of apartment blocks in Russia by Chechen terrorists, Moscow once again invaded Chechnya, the start of the Second Chechen War.
The war pitted the Russian military and pro-Moscow Chechen forces against Chechen fighters in a conflict characterized by appalling levels of destruction, disregard for civilian casualties especially on the part of the Russian military command and human rights violations on both sides. Although Russian military units succeeded in capturing the Chechen capital Grozny - flattening the city in the process - inthe Chechen resistance continued to operate both within Chechnya and in neighbouring areas of the North Caucasus and inflicted a number of attacks on Russian civilians and pro-Russian Chechen leaders.
These included the hostage takings in the Nord-Ost theatre in Moscow in and the No. The Chechen independence movement became associated with Wahhabi radicalism, and Russian politicians explicitly appended the struggle against it to the global 'war on terror'.
Capitalizing on the loss of sympathy for the Chechen cause caused by the Moscow and Beslan hostage takings, Moscow succeeded in installing a pro-Russian regime in Grozny and eliminating key figures in the Chechen resistance, including former President Aslan Maskhadov and warlord Shamil Basayev.
Pro-Moscow regime Despite imposing a pro-Moscow regime on the Chechen republic, there remained vested interests in continued hostilities. These include the interests of figures within the Russian military and security forces who stand to gain profit or promotion through continued conflict and the interests of pro-Russian Chechens whose position is made secure by the continued existence of a Chechen resistance. The Chechen conflict could to some extent be characterized as a situation of dual power, split between a pro-Russian regime closely associated with the clan of assassinated President Kadyrov and his son Ramzan, and the pro-independence resistance, made up of a number of field commanders, their armed forces, sympathizers in the wider population and envoys representing the resistance abroad.
Continuing low-intensity conflict was shaped in by the killing of former Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov in March, just weeks after he had unilaterally proposed a ceasefire and unconditional talks with Moscow to end the war.
Maskhadov was replaced by Abdul-Khalim Sadullaev, chairman of the Shari'a Supreme Court, as president and military commander of the resistance. According to some analysts Sadullaev's appointment represented a shift towards a younger generation in the Chechen resistance Sadullaev was in his 30s that was more militant, less willing or able to negotiate a peace agreement with Russia and more inclined towards religiosity. Reports further suggested splits within the rebels between those who supported the establishment of a sovereign Chechen republic as a nation-state and independent subject of international law, and those who reject this idea in favour of the establishment of an Islamic state encompassing the whole of the North Caucasus, of which Chechnya would form only part.
In June Sadullaev pledged that the rebels would undertake no further hostage takings and would restrict its attacks to military targets. After Maskhadov's death the rebels undertook only one major operation outside of Chechnya, an attack in Nalchik, the capital of the Kabardino-Balkaria republic, in October in which over people, including civilians, were killed.
Russian human rights groups criticized Kadyrov for his continued employment of former Chechen fighters against Russia who are personally loyal to him known informally as the 'kadyrovtsy'and who are allegedly responsible for numerous serious human rights violations, including the abduction and 'disappearance' of civilians.
On 17 June Sadullaev was killed by Russian Special Forces in the town of Argun; field commander and former vice-president of the unrecognized Chechen resistance government Doku Umarov was declared his successor.
The Chechen separatists were further shaken when only days after Umarov had appointed veteran warlord Basayev responsible for the mass hostage-taking at Budennovsk in and who also claimed responsibility for the Moscow theatre hostage taking as his vice-president, Basayev was killed by Russian special forces on 10 July.
In Octoberthe campaigning journalist Anna Politkovskaya was shot dead at her apartment block in central Moscow. That would be a major assist for Cuba amid slumping shipments of cheap fuel from its troubled socialist ally Venezuela. Negotiations for rail lines and other infrastructure are in the works.
In June, Trump ordered tighter travel and commercial restrictions again, disappointing U. In September, his administration slashed U. Moscow is seizing on that rollback as a way to undermine U. Those subsidies disappeared with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Under Russian President Vladimir Putin, who longs to return his nation to superpower status, Moscow over the past decade has sought to revive relations with Latin America, particularly with countries wary of U. It also started providing export financing to Russian companies looking to sell to the cash-strapped island.