We will discuss each stage in more detail, but in Table "Relationship Stages" you will find a list of .. Explain how culture and gender influence friendships. In many Western cultures, romantic relationships are voluntary. We are free to . The fourth stage of romantic relationships is Intensifying Communication. Qualitative analyses showed that relationship stages and processes were similar to and cultural environment that can influence their relationship development in . References to talking, flirting, communicating or increasing communication.
Read More There are 4 predictable stages that couples experience in a dating relationship. At each stage, there is often a decision sometimes more thoughtfully arrived at than others to move forward or to end the relationship. Some stages take longer than others to go through and some people take much longer at each stage. The initial meeting may take place over the internet, through friends, in a church or social group, at a party or bar or any one of a myriad of many different places.
Different arenas for meeting allow for different opportunities to get to know each other and see if there is enough curiosity or interest to take it to the next level which would involve arranging a second or third meeting.
Curiosity, Interest, and Infatuation During the second stage, attraction and infatuation are most pronounced. Early attraction often involves the physical attributes of the partner and include things like outward appearance, body type, interests and personality traits.
Couples generally do not have much conflict at this stage of the cycle as each is really trying hard to impress the other person. Andrew Collins and Stephanie D. Adolescents begin to see friends rather than parents as providers of social support, as friends help negotiate the various emotional problems often experienced for the first time.
Friendships in adolescence become important as we begin to create an identity that is separate from our family. For example, as adolescents progress through puberty and forward on their identity search, they may experience some jealousy and possessiveness in their friendships as they attempt to balance the tensions between their dependence on and independence from friends.
Additionally, as adolescents articulate their identities, they look for acceptance and validation of self in their friends, especially given the increase in self-consciousness experienced by most adolescents.
Aldine De Gruyter,59— Those who do not form satisfying relationships during this time may miss out on opportunities for developing communication competence, leading to lower performance at work or school and higher rates of depression. The transition to college marks a move from adolescence to early adulthood and opens new opportunities for friendship and challenges in dealing with the separation from hometown friends.
Early Adulthood Early adulthood encompasses the time from around eighteen to twenty-nine years of age, and although not every person in this age group goes to college, most of the research on early adult friendships focuses on college students. Those who have the opportunity to head to college will likely find a canvas for exploration and experimentation with various life and relational choices relatively free from the emotional, time, and financial constraints of starting their own family that may come later in life.
As we transition from adolescence to early adulthood, we are still formulating our understanding of relational processes, but people report that their friendships are more intimate than the ones they had in adolescence.
It is inevitable that young adults will lose some ties to their friends from adolescence during this transition, which has positive and negative consequences. Investment in friendships from adolescence provides a sense of continuity during the often rough transition to college.
These friendships may also help set standards for future friendships, meaning the old friendships are a base for comparison for new friends. Obviously this is a beneficial situation relative to the quality of the old friendship.
If the old friendship was not a healthy one, using it as the standard for new friendships is a bad idea. Additionally, nurturing older friendships at the expense of meeting new people and experiencing new social situations may impede personal growth during this period. Adulthood Adult friendships span a larger period of time than the previous life stages discussed, as adulthood encompasses the period from thirty to sixty-five years old.
The exploration that occurs for most middle-class people in early adulthood gives way to less opportunity for friendships in adulthood, as many in this period settle into careers, nourish long-term relationships, and have children of their own. These new aspects of life bring more time constraints and interpersonal and task obligations, and with these obligations comes an increased desire for stability and continuity.
Adult friendships tend to occur between people who are similar in terms of career position, race, age, partner status, class, and education level. This is partly due to the narrowed social networks people join as they become more educated and attain higher career positions. Therefore, finding friends through religious affiliation, neighborhood, work, or civic engagement is likely to result in similarity between friends. Sage,48— Even as social networks narrow, adults are also more likely than young adults to rely on their friends to help them process thoughts and emotions related to their partnerships or other interpersonal relationships.
Sage,74— For example, a person may rely on a romantic partner to help process through work relationships and close coworkers to help process through family relationships.
Work life and home life become connected in important ways, as career money making intersects with and supports the desires for stability home making. Since home and career are primary focuses, socializing outside of those areas may be limited to interactions with family parents, siblings, and in-laws if they are geographically close.
Spouses or partners are expected to be friends; it is often expressed that the best partner is one who can also serve as best friend, and having a partner as a best friend can be convenient if time outside the home is limited by parental responsibilities.
There is not much research on friendships in late middle age ages fifty to sixty-fivebut it has been noted that relationships with partners may become even more important during this time, as parenting responsibilities diminish with grown children and careers and finances stabilize.
Partners who have successfully navigated their middle age may feel a bonding sense of accomplishment with each other and with any close friends with whom they shared these experiences. Those who have typically had a gregarious social life will continue to associate with friends if physically and mentally able, and those who relied primarily on a partner, family, or limited close friends will have more limited, but perhaps equally rewarding, interactions.
Given that geographic relocation is common in early adulthood, these friends may be physically distant, but if investment in occasional contact or visits preserved the friendship, these friends are likely able to pick up where they left off. However, biological aging and the social stereotypes and stigma associated with later life and aging begin to affect communication patterns.
Although stereotypes of the elderly often present them as slow or out of touch, many people in later life enjoy the company of friends and maintain active social lives. Mobility may be limited due to declining health, and retiring limits the social interactions one had at work and work-related events.
Sage,51— People may continue to work and lead physically and socially active lives decades past the marker of later life, which occurs around age sixty-five. Regardless of when these changes begin, it is common and normal for our opportunities to interact with wide friendship circles to diminish as our abilities decline. Early later life may be marked by a transition to partial or full retirement if a person is socioeconomically privileged enough to do so.
For some, retirement is a time to settle into a quiet routine in the same geographic place, perhaps becoming even more involved in hobbies and civic organizations, which may increase social interaction and the potential for friendships.
Others may move to a more desirable place or climate and go through the process of starting over with new friends. For health or personal reasons, some in later life live in assisted-living facilities. Later-life adults in these facilities may make friends based primarily on proximity, just as many college students in early adulthood do in the similarly age-segregated environment of a residence hall.
Aldine De Gruyter,— Friendships in later life provide emotional support that is often only applicable during this life stage.
Communication in Relationships
For example, given the general stigma against aging and illness, friends may be able to shield each other from negative judgments from others and help each other maintain a positive self-concept. Friends can also be instrumental in providing support after the death of a partner. Given this fact, it is not surprising that widows in particular may turn to other single women for support.
Overall, providing support in later life is important given the likelihood of declining health. In the case of declining health, some may turn to family instead of friends for support to avoid overburdening friends with requests for assistance.
However, turning to a friend for support is not completely burdensome, as research shows that feeling needed helps older people maintain a positive well-being. In fact, men report a similar amount of intimacy in their friendships as women but are less likely than women to explicitly express affection verbally e.
This is not surprising, given the societal taboos against same-gender expressions of affection, especially between men, even though an increasing number of men are more comfortable expressing affection toward other men and women. However, researchers have wondered if men communicate affection in more implicit ways that are still understood by the other friend.
Men may use shared activities as a way to express closeness—for example, by doing favors for each other, engaging in friendly competition, joking, sharing resources, or teaching each other new skills. Dow and Julia T.
Wood Thousand Oaks, CA: Cross-gender friendships Friendships between a male and a female. These friendships diminish in late childhood and early adolescence as boys and girls segregate into separate groups for many activities and socializing, reemerge as possibilities in late adolescence, and reach a peak potential in the college years of early adulthood.
Later, adults with spouses or partners are less likely to have cross-sex friendships than single people.
The 4 Stages of Dating Relationships
In any case, research studies have identified several positive outcomes of cross-gender friendships. Men and women report that they get a richer understanding of how the other gender thinks and feels.
It seems these friendships fulfill interaction needs not as commonly met in same-gender friendships. For example, men reported more than women that they rely on their cross-gender friendships for emotional support. Similarly, women reported that they enjoyed the activity-oriented friendships they had with men. As discussed earlier regarding friends-with-benefits relationships, sexual attraction presents a challenge in cross-gender heterosexual friendships.
Key Takeaways Friendships are voluntary interpersonal relationships between two people who are usually equals and who mutually influence one another. Friendships change throughout our lives as we transition from adolescence to adulthood to later life.
Cross-gender friendships may offer perspective into gender relationships that same-gender friendships do not, as both men and women report that they get support or enjoyment from their cross-gender friendships. However, there is a potential for sexual tension that complicates these relationships.
What were the environmental or situational factors that led to this situation? Review the types of friendships reciprocal, associative, and receptive. Which of these types of friendships do you have more of in academic contexts and why? Answer the same question for professional contexts and personal contexts. Of the life stages discussed in this chapter, which one are you currently in?
From your experience, do friendships change between stages the way the book says they do? Why or why not? Describe various types of family rituals and explain their importance.
Explain how conformity and conversation orientations work together to create different family climates. There is no doubt that the definition and makeup of families are changing in the United States. New data from research organizations and the US Census show the following: Just as the makeup of families changes, so do the definitions. Defining Family Who do you consider part of your family? Many people would initially name people who they are related to by blood. You may also name a person with whom you are in a committed relationship—a partner or spouse.
But some people have a person not related by blood that they might refer to as aunt or uncle or even as a brother or sister. The definitions people ascribe to families usually fall into at least one of the following categories: Lawrence Erlbaum,5— Structural definitions of family focus on form, criteria for membership, and often hierarchy of family members.
One example of a structural definition of family is two or more people who live together and are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. From this definition, a father and son, two cousins, or a brother and sister could be considered a family if they live together. However, a single person living alone or with nonrelated friends, or a couple who chooses not to or are not legally able to marry would not be considered a family.
The simplicity and time-saving positives of these definitions are countered by the fact that many family types are left out in general structural definitions; however, more specific structural definitions have emerged in recent years that include more family forms. Family of origin Refers to relatives connected by blood or other traditional legal bonds such as marriage or adoption and includes parents, grandparents, siblings, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, and so on.
Lawrence Erlbaum,6—7. Unlike family of origin, this definition is limited to people who share the same household and represents the family makeup we choose. There are several subdefinitions of families of orientation. Lawrence Erlbaum,7. A nuclear family includes two heterosexual married parents and one or more children. While this type of family has received a lot of political and social attention, some scholars argue that it was only dominant as a family form for a brief part of human history.
Peterson and Suzanne K. Steinmetz, and Gary W. Springer,2. A binuclear family is a nuclear family that was split by divorce into two separate households, one headed by the mother and one by the father, with the original children from the family residing in each home for periods of time.
A single-parent family includes a mother or father who may or may not have been previously married with one or more children.
A Step-by-Step Guide to Tribal Leadership: Part 1: The Five Stages of Tribal Culture
A stepfamily includes a heterosexual couple that lives together with children from a previous relationship. A cohabitating family includes a heterosexual couple who lives together in a committed relationship but does not have a legal bond such as marriage. Similarly, a gay or lesbian family includes a couple of the same gender who live together in a committed relationship and may or may not have a legal bond such as marriage, a civil union, or a domestic partnership. Cohabitating families and gay or lesbian families may or may not have children.
Is it more important that the structure of a family matches a definition, or should we define family based on the behavior of people or the quality of their interpersonal interactions?
Cross cultural relationships - dealing with differences.
Tribal Leaders are the people who focus their efforts on upgrading the tribal culture. The Five Tribal Stages The main concept of the book is that a tribe is defined by its culture. For the purpose of helping us scaffold our language and behavior, the authors have framed five tribal stages that exhibit specific types of language, and therefore culture.
Just language and behavior. Each stage is more desirable and will outperform the previous one, with Stage Five being the most preferable. People and groups must move through stages one at a time, and each stage has leverage points that will nudge people forward. The graphic above represents the flavor of each stage. Take a look for the theme and mood of each one: People tend to form two-person relationships, so if they manage of group of ten, they have ten relationships.