Development and Validation of the Tinder Motives Scale (TMS) A recent trend in online dating is the use of “Proximity Dating Applications” on . the recursive relationship between user expectations and practices by drawing a distinction (Kendall's Tau; τ) was used to measure the strength of the. The resulting Tinder Motives Scale (TMS) consists of 58 items and shows a . V.L. Deveau, Internet initiated relationships: Associations between age and .. Participants (N=, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline. In this study a Cyber-Relationship Motives Scale was developed and validated .. a KMO value (Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin measure of sampling adequacy) of
To provide a basis for early intervention and preventive measures, understanding the motives behind intensive Internet use is important. Objective This study aims to develop a questionnaire, the Internet Motive Questionnaire for Adolescents IMQ-Aas a theory-based measurement for identifying the underlying motives for high-risk Internet use.
More precisely, the aim was to confirm the 4-factor structure ie, social, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives as well as its construct and concurrent validity. Another aim was to identify the motivational differences between high-risk and low-risk Internet users. Methods A sample of German adolescents female: A reliability analysis revealed good internal consistencies of the subscales.
Moreover, regression analyses confirmed that the enhancement and coping motive groups significantly predicted high-risk Internet consumption and the OSVK-S sum score.
A mixed-model ANOVA confirmed that adolescents mainly access the Internet for social motives, followed by enhancement and coping motives, and that high-risk users access the Internet more frequently for coping and enhancement motives than low-risk users.
Low-risk users were primarily motivated socially. Conclusions The IMQ-A enables the assessment of motives related to adolescent Internet use and thus the identification of populations at risk.
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The questionnaire enables the development of preventive measures or early intervention programs, especially dealing with internal motives of Internet consumption. For example, every German household containing young people aged between 12 and 19 years is equipped with a computer or laptop [ 5 ]. In addition, personal computers are no longer the most common way of accessing the Internet in Europe.
There has been unequivocal growth in access to the Internet via handheld or portable devices eg, touchpads and smartphonesshowing that the Internet is now accessible to everyone [ 35 ]. Therefore, we can assume the existence of a generation that has grown up with the latest technologies from a very young age [ 12 ] and that Internet use is an extremely widespread phenomenon.
This situation can be clearly explained by the fact that the Internet is a convenient source of information, social contacts, education, shopping, and recreational activities [ 6 - 10 ] that simplifies everyday life. The Internet also has a negative side. Furthermore, different studies in several countries show that for 1. Initial results from longitudinal studies even give rise to the suspicion that the disorder is highly stable [ 18 ].
Regarding the relationship between the Internet and all areas of life [ 5 - 7 ] and the suggested DSM-5 criteria for Internet addiction [ 11 ], the duration someone spends online does not appear to be a valid criterion. Thus, getting to know the motives behind adolescent Internet consumption is important. All factor loadings ranged between. The correlations between the nine factors were examined and it was noted that some were strongly correlated. Therefore, another exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine the relationships among the nine motivation factors.
The exploratory factor analysis results showed that these nine motivation factors could be grouped into three abstract motivations dimensions: These measures included the nine factors of cyber-relationship motives. The next step was the random distribution of questionnaires at the main entrance of an engineering college building at the same university used in Study 2.
However, to increase the likelihood that the respondents would be different, the building selected was different from the one used in Study 2. Of these, 21 were excluded because of missing data or because they had had no cyber-relationship experience.
The average age of these participants was The Cyber-Relationship Motives Scale was evaluated through a confirmatory factor analysis CFA using a generalized least squares estimation. After examination of the modification indices of the CFA analysis and after checking the scale statement to reduce unnecessary repetition, two items were removed for further analysis. The CFA was re-examined on the remaining 27 items, three for each of nine motivation factors, resulting in sound fitness of the model with a goodness of fit index GFI of.
The ratio of x2 and degrees of freedom was 1. The 27 items are listed in the Appendix. Second-order CFA was conducted on the remaining 27 items to evaluate the proposed second-order structures of motivations, resulting in a GFI of.
These indicators are both within the acceptable criteria range. The ratio of x2 and degree of freedom was 1. This survey was conducted at a different Taiwanese university from that used for Studies 2 and 3 and questionnaires were distributed at the campus on a weekday.
In total, questionnaires were collected and These respondents spent an average of Since the reliability and the structure of the scale were supported, the validity was then examined in the following way. Convergent and discriminant validity are commonly evaluated in scale development.
Based on prior research, convergent validity is acceptable when all factor loadings are above. The results showed that in our study all factor loadings were greater than. The results showed that correlation among the nine factors ranged from. The results are reported in Table 3. To examine the construct validity, relationship coefficients were tested between cyber-relationship motives and passion. Passion is defined as a strong tendency for people toward an activity that people like, find valuable, and in which they are willing to invest lots of time Vallerand et al.
Therefore, it would be expected that Internet users who are very passionate about making friends online would also have high scores on cyber-relationship motives. Accordingly, there should be a positive relationship between the nine cyber-relationship motive factors and passion.
This proposition was supported by the results of the correlation analysis, which revealed significant positive relationships between passion and the nine cyber-relationship motives.
As can be seen in Table 4, these results provide further evidence of the construct validity of our scale. In recent years, forming online relationships with others is not an exceptional occurrence but rather, a common phenomenon.
Therefore, it is important to learn what causes people to cultivate interpersonal relationships online. In this article we aimed to highlight the cyber-relationship motives that spur users to form relationships with others on the Internet. Through four empirical surveys, we identified nine cyber-relationship motives. The scale we developed based on these was subjected to a validation process, and the scale's structure was confirmed to be stable across different samples.
Through the results of the four empirical surveys, we showed that our respondents shared the nine motivations. For researchers, this scale provides an extensive understanding of cyber-relationships and the underlying motives for these. For match website or online-dating website marketers, this scale could be used to enhance their business strategy by discovering their members' true desires in meeting people online.
In the current study samples of college students were used to develop the scale. For the purpose of generalization, in future studies samples of different Internet users should be used to validate the scale. The difference in motivations between students and general Internet users might be a critical issue for future research. In addition, this study was conducted in Taiwan and cultural background may be a key factor influencing individuals' cyber-relationship motives, especially the motives relative to romance and sexual partners.
Researchers in the future could use the scale developed in the present study as part of a cross-cultural comparison of cyber-relationship motives. Structural equations with latent variables.
Academic OneFile - Document - Cyber relationship motives: scale development and validation
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