China–Mongolia relations - Wikipedia
By Zolzaya Erdenebileg. With the signing of the China-Mongolia-Russia corridor in June , Sino-Mongolian relations entered a new era of. The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia. It covers parts of Northern and Northwestern China, and of southern Mongolia. . Despite the harsh conditions, these deserts and the surrounding regions sustain many animals, including black -tailed gazelles, marbled polecats, .. Constitution · Elections · Foreign relations. of arid landscape in Northern China and Southern Mongolia that is inhabited by unique range in the wild, remote parts of the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts.
En route you can see the varied terrains of the Chinese countryside and the Tibetan plateau. The train has sleeper cars and oxygen to help neophytes get accustomed to the high altitudes.
Tourists can spend a few days exploring Beijing and several days in Lhasa and the surrounding mountains. Deserts The Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in southwestern China are massive, ancient seas with some of the driest conditions of any desert in the world. Taklamakan has perilous sand storms and drought, poisonous snakes and extreme weather.
The Gobi, which has a legendary bone collection, is the site of ongoing digs where some of the most spectacular paleontological finds have been discovered. Hardy tourists can view the myriad landscapes and culture of the Gobi on tours with accommodations in Mongolian "gers," felt-lined lattice yurts. Desert visitors may stumble across dinosaur bones, see folk dancing, Mongolian horse racing and archery contests, tour old temples and monasteries, relax by a waterfall, hike the dunes, spend time in Ulaanbataar, the present-day capital of Mongolia, and Karakorum, the ruins of the ancient capital.
The Yellow River is nearly as long.
Both rivers run through the center of China and have created important agricultural regions due to annual flooding. Tourists today can see the Chinese effort to control the Yangtze's floods on a cruise that visits the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest dam and hydroelectric power supplier. Yangtze cruises, which are usually bookended with sightseeing in Beijing, Xian, Chengdu, Guilin and Shanghai, may include adventure hikes, kayaking opportunities, short cruises down smaller scenic rivers like the Li River in Guilin with its karst cliffs, and a bus ride to the peak overlooking the dam itself.
The Yangtze flows through Nanjing and empties into the sea at Shanghai. Through all the central parts, until the bordering mountains are reached, trees and shrubs are utterly absent. West of the route from Ulaanbaatar to Kalganthe country presents approximately the same general features, except that the mountains are not so irregularly scattered in groups but have more strongly defined strikes, mostly east to west, west-north-west to east-south-east, and west-south-west to east-north-east.
The elevations do not form continuous chains, but make up a congeries of short ridges and groups rising from a common base and intersected by a labyrinth of ravines, gullies, glens and basins.
Mom plants 2 million trees in desert to fulfill son’s last wish - Global Times
But the tablelandsbuilt up of the horizontal red deposits of the Han-gai Obruchev 's Gobi formation which are characteristic of the southern parts of eastern Mongolia, are absent here or occur only in one locality, near the Shara-muren river. They are greatly intersected by gullies or dry watercourses.
Water is scarce, with no streams, no lakes, no wells, and precipitation falls seldom. The prevailing winds blow from the west and northwest, and the pall of dust overhangs the country as in the Takla Makan and the desert of Lop. Characteristic of the flora are wild garlic, Kalidium gracile, wormwoodsaxaulNitraria schoberi, CaraganaEphedrasaltwort and the grass Lasiagrostis splendens.
The taana wild onion Allium polyrrhizum is the main browse eaten by many herd animals, and Mongolians claim that this is essential to produce the correct, slightly hazelnut-like flavour of camel airag fermented milk.
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This great desert country of Gobi is crossed by several trade routes, some of which have been in use for thousands of years. The Ordos Desertwhich covers the northeastern portion of the Ordos Plateau, in the great north loop of the Yellow River, is part of this ecoregion.
It belongs to the middle basin of the three great depressions into which Potanin divides the Gobi as a whole.
For hundreds of kilometers, nothing can be seen but bare sands; in some places they continue so far without a break that the Mongols call them Tengger i. These vast expanses are absolutely waterless, nor do any oases relieve the unbroken stretches of yellow sand, which alternate with equally vast areas of saline clay or, nearer the foot of the mountains, with barren shingle.
The vegetation is confined to a few varieties of bushes and a dozen kinds of grasses and herbs, the most conspicuous being saxaul Haloxylon ammondendron and Agriophyllum gobicum. The others include prickly convolvulusfield wormwood Artemisia campestrisacaciaInula ammophilaSophora flavescensConvolvulus ammaniiPeganum and Astragalus species, but all dwarfed, deformed and starved.
The fauna consists of little but antelope, wolf, fox, hare, hedgehog, marten, numerous lizards and a few birds, e. Dzungarian Basin semi-desert[ edit ] The structure here is that of the mighty T'ien Shanor Heavenly Mountains, running from west to east. It divides the northern one-third of Sinkiang from the southern two-thirds. On the northern side, rivers formed from the snow and glaciers of the high mountains break through barren foothill ranges and flow out into an immense, hollow plain.
Here the rivers begin to straggle and fan out, and form great marshes with dense reed-beds. Westerners call this terrain the Dzungarian desert. The Chinese also call it a desert, but the Mongols call it a 'gobi'—that is, a land of thin herbage, more suitable for camels than for cows, but capable also, if herds are kept small and moved frequently, of sustaining horses, sheep, and goats.
The herbage comprises a high proportion of woody, fragrant plants. Gobi mutton is the most aromatic in the world. As they proceed south, they transcend and transpose, sweeping back on east and west respectively, with Lake Bosten in between.
These two ranges mark the northern and the southern edges respectively of a great swelling, which extends eastward for nearly twenty degrees of longitude.
To the south of the Kuruk-tagh lie the desert of Lop Nurthe Kum-tagh desert, and the valley of the Bulunzir-gol. To this great swelling, which arches up between the two border-ranges of the Chol-tagh and Kuruk-tagh, the Mongols give the name of Ghashuun-Gobi or "Salt Desert".
The Kuruk-tagh is the greatly disintegrated, denuded and wasted relic of a mountain range which used to be of incomparably greater magnitude. In the west, between Lake Bosten and the Tarimit consists of two, possibly of three, principal ranges, which, although broken in continuity, run generally parallel to one another, and embrace between them numerous minor chains of heights.
These minor ranges, together with the principal ranges, divide the region into a series of long; narrow valleys, mostly parallel to one another and to the enclosing mountain chains, which descend like terraced steps, on the one side towards the depression of Lukchun and on the other towards the desert of Lop. In many cases these latitudinal valleys are barred transversely by ridges or spurs, generally elevations en masse of the bottom of the valley.
Where such elevations exist, there is generally found, on the east side of the transverse ridge, a cauldron-shaped depression, which some time or other has been the bottom of a former lake, but is now nearly a dry salt-basin.
China-Mongolia Relations: Challenges and Opportunities
The surface configuration is in fact markedly similar to that which occurs in the inter-mount latitudinal valleys of the Kunlun Mountains. The hydrography of the Ghashiun-Gobi and the Kuruk-tagh is determined by these chequered arrangements of the latitudinal valleys. Most of the principal streams, instead of flowing straight down these valleys, cross them diagonally and only turn west after they have cut their way through one or more of the transverse barrier ranges. This range he considers to belong to the Choltagh system, whereas Sven Hedin would assign it to the Kuruk-tagh.