Native Americans: Overview | salonjardin.info
And in plant-animal relationships a certain reciprocity was implied, For MacLeish, Native American agricultural practices indicate a French and Dutch traders took 30, beaver pelts in and almost , in The relationship between the French and the Native American tribes on mutual gain–the French gained access to natural resources such as. Interactions among Europeans and Native Americans varied from place to However, the French, Spanish, and Dutch sought profit through trade and affected the dynamics of European and indigenous American relationships. and the Americas, wished to enrich themselves with the New World's natural resources.
And why abandon wives, children, relatives, and friends? Why risk thy life and thy property every year, and why venture thyself with such risk, in any season whatsoever, to the storms and tempests of the sea in order to come to a strange and barbarous country which thou considerest the poorest and least fortunate of the world?
Besides, since we are wholly convinced of the contrary, we scarcely take the trouble to go to France, because we fear, with good reason, lest we find little satisfaction there, seeing, in our own experience, that those who are natives thereof leave it every year in order to enrich themselves on our shores.
We believe, further, that you are also incomparably poorer than we, and that you are only simple journeymen, valets, servants, and slaves, all masters and grand captains though you may appear, seeing that you glory in our old rags and in our miserable suits of beaver which can no longer be of use to us, and that you find among us, in the fishery for cod which you make in these parts, the wherewithal to comfort your misery and the poverty which oppresses you. As to us, we find all our riches and all our conveniences among ourselves, without trouble and without exposing our lives to the dangers in which you find yourselves constantly through your long voyages.
And, whilst feeling compassion for you in the sweetness of our repose, we wonder at the anxieties and cares which you give yourselves night and day in order to load your ship. We see also that all your people live, as a rule, only upon cod which you catch among us. It is everlastingly nothing but cod—cod in the morning, cod at midday, cod at evening, and always cod, until things come to such a pass that if you wish some good morsels, it is at our expense; and you are obliged to have recourse to the Indians, whom you despise so much, and to beg them to go a-hunting that you may be regaled.
Now tell me this one little thing, if thou hast any sense: Which of these two is the wisest and happiest—he who labours without ceasing and only obtains, and that with great trouble, enough to live on, or he who rests in comfort and finds all that he needs in the pleasure of hunting and fishing?
It is true, that we have not always had the use of bread and of wine which your France produces; but, in fact, before the arrival of the French in these parts, did not the Gaspesians live much longer than now? However, the French, Spanish, and Dutch sought profit through trade and exploitation of New World resources, and they knew that the native people would be important to their success.
Europeans also wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity.French and Native Americans Video
Therefore, economic gain and religion were the two factors that most affected the dynamics of European and indigenous American relationships.
After enslaving indigenous peoples in the Caribbean and the southern parts of the Americas to grow crops and mine for gold, silver, and other valuables, the Spanish moved into North America where they concentrated their efforts in what is now the southwestern and southeastern United States.
Augustine but only a small number of Spaniards settled there. Catholic missionaries labored to convert the Indians to Christianity, and they experienced some success baptizing and transforming the Guale and Timucuan peoples into farmers.
But even the most cooperative Indians continued to maintain their own religious and cultural traditions, and many priests concluded that the Indians were inferior and incapable of understanding Christianity. Indigenous populations declined over the seventeenth century as epidemics brought by the Spanish killed large numbers of natives.
Instead of enslaving Native Americans in farming and mining operations, the French exploited existing inter-tribal alliances and rivalries to establish trade relationships with the Huron, Montagnais, and Algonquins along the St. Lawrence River and further inland toward the Great Lakes.
The French and Native American Relations | Ancestral Findings
These Native Americans competed for exclusive status as intermediaries between other Indian traders and the French. Although Native Americans did most of the work, tracking, trapping, and skinning the animals and transporting the pelts to French traders, they drove hard bargains for their furs. French traders exchanged textiles, weapons, and metal goods for the furs of animals such as beavers, bears, and wolves.
The French have been portrayed as sensitive to the culture of native peoples, but under their influence, the Fox were all but destroyed. In general, the interaction of native North Americans and Europeans began with a period of initial goodwill and trade, followed by armed conflicts in which native warriors demonstrated great courage, organization, and skill. Eventually, however, superior weaponry produced victory for the colonists.
Throughout the period to the interaction was marked by biological, cultural, and material exchanges.
These gifts were precursors to trade relationships that marked permanent change in native societies. By removing militant native leaders and replacing them with more-amenable rulers, the Spanish were able to take power and extract the gold and silver that made Central and South America attractive to Europeans.
Spaniards sent priests to Christianize native peoples even as they stole their land and exploited their labor. Europeans initially mistook the natives of the Caribbean islands for inhabitants of Asiathe continent Columbus had expected to find, and called them Indians. As conflicts led to violence and colonization spread to the mainland, however, the view of Indians as naive innocents soon gave way to an image of native peoples as satanic fiends bent on the destruction of white colonists.
Europeans engaged in formal academic debates on the nature of Native Americans and where they fit into the world.
American Indians at European Contact
The Pueblo people accepted their presence without resistance, adopting some of their innovations in cooking, architecture, and town planning. These Spaniards had profound effects on the local ecology. They brought cattle and sheep which grazed on the land. Their use of baking ovens greatly increased the need for firewood, depleting local supplies.
And the Spanish organized Indian laborers to expand the existing network of irrigation canals.
The Acoma Pueblo refused to submit to the interlopers, and hundreds of Indians were killed or enslaved. The Spanish never found gold or silver, struggled economically, and maintained an uneasy peace with their neighbors.
But in Acoma warriors expelled the Spanish, driving them all the way back to Mexico and keeping them out for a decade.
Military presidios, or forts, soon were added to each mission. Native religion was suppressed; Indians who resisted were physically abused; and traditional family relationships were discouraged. Native resistance took the form of poisonings, arson, and violent uprisings—with four thousand deaths recorded at Santa Barbara alone. The native population of coastal California, estimated at seventy thousand before the missions, declined to about fifteen thousand within three decades of their arrival.
In the early s Indians in the Saint Lawrence River valley established trading relationships with the French. The Montagnais and others obtained textiles and glass and metal goods in exchange for beaver skins.
The French erected a fort at Quebec in to protect their trade from raids by the Mohawks. In the following years other nations entered into trade relations with the French, including the Hurons and the Algonquins.
Against this alliance of French and natives were arrayed the Iroquois nations of Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, which had united as the Five Nations under Hiawatha and Deganawidah in the previous century.
The Iroquois gained an ally inwhen Dutch colonists led by Henry Hudson arrived in present-day New Yorkseeking to copy the economic success of the French.
The Dutch supplied them with metal weaponry—hatchets, knives, and arrow points—needed to combat their native and French enemies. Dutch traders penetrated southern New England and the Delaware River valley in present-day Pennsylvania.
American Indians at European Contact | NCpedia
Until the British were unsuccessful in their attempts to obtain a beachhead on the North Atlantic coast. After that date the Wampanoags accepted the colony of Plymouth, and British traders began to compete for native products. The use of wampum accelerated the pace of trade and heightened competition among native peoples, producing commercial rivalries that sometimes were settled through warfare.