MARXISM AND CLASS CONFLICT
Bourgeoisie: Bourgeoisie, the social order that is dominated by the so-called thinkers who treated the French Revolution as a revolution of the bourgeois. by exploiting the propertyless proletariat and thereby creating revolutionary tensions . the property of the bourgeoisie is expropriated and class conflict, exploitation . Bourgeoisie and Proletariat from the Communist Manifesto by Carl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Karl Marx () was a revolutionary German economist and Marx was writing against a backdrop of great industrial change. Bourgeoisie in Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto In The Communist Once the Industrial Revolution came the life in the cities where the proletarians lived mode of production no longer suits the relations of society there is a revolution.
Show transcript Background Karl Marx was a revolutionary German economist and philosopher, and the founder of the Communist movement. Marx was writing against a backdrop of great industrial change.
Overcrowded, newly industrialised cities were expanding, and much of the working class lived in great poverty. Marx saw history as the story of class struggles, in which the oppressed fight against their oppressors. According to Marx, as history unfolded, the victory of one class would pave the way for the future freedom of the rest of society.
Marx viewed the unfolding process of history as follows: First in ancient and mediaeval society the landed and wealthy had oppressed the slaves and the poorest plebeians and labourers. Then, as new technologies were invented and market forces grew stronger, everything changed. The middle classes - gaining wealth and power from trade and manufacture - challenged the power and authority of the old rulers.
But at this stage a new struggle was formed between the bourgeoisie the property owning class and the proletariat the industrial working class.
Marx argued that the capitalist bourgeoisie mercilessly exploited the proletariat. He recognised that the work carried out by the proletariat created great wealth for the capitalist. The moyenne bourgeoisie is the equivalent of the British and American upper-middle classes.
- The Communist Manifesto - Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
- From the Bourgeois to the Proletarian Revolution
- What did Karl Marx think about the changes brought by the industrial revolution?
Grande bourgeoisie[ edit ] The grande bourgeoisie are families that have been bourgeois since the 19th century, or for at least four or five generations.
This bourgeois family has acquired an established historical and cultural heritage over the decades. The names of these families are generally known in the city where they reside, and their ancestors have often contributed to the region's history.
These families are respected and revered.
They belong to the upper class, and in the British class system are considered part of the gentry. In the French-speaking countries, they are sometimes referred la petite haute bourgeoisie. In France, it is composed of bourgeois families that have existed since the French Revolution. They have rich cultural and historical heritages, and their financial means are more than secure.
These families exude an aura of nobility, which prevents them from certain marriages or occupations. These people nevertheless live a lavish lifestyle, enjoying the company of the great artists of the time.
The Communist Manifesto - Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
In France, the families of the haute bourgeoisie are also referred to as les familles, a term coined in the first half of the 20th century.
In the French language, the term bourgeoisie almost designates a caste by itself, even though social mobility into this socio-economic group is possible.INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - Educational Video for Kids.
Nazism[ edit ] Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of internationalist class strugglebut supported the "class struggle between nations", and sought to resolve internal class struggle in the nation while it identified Germany as a proletarian nation fighting against plutocratic nations.
The financial collapse of the white collar middle-class of the s figures much in their strong support of Nazism. InPrime Minister Mussolini gave a speech wherein he established a clear ideological distinction between capitalism the social function of the bourgeoisie and the bourgeoisie as a social classwhom he dehumanised by reducing them into high-level abstractions: Philosophically, as a materialist creature, the bourgeois man was stereotyped as irreligious; thus, to establish an existential distinction between the supernatural faith of the Roman Catholic Church and the materialist faith of temporal religion; in The Autarchy of Culture: Intellectuals and Fascism in the s, the priest Giuseppe Marino said that: Christianity is essentially anti-bourgeois.
A Christian, a true Christian, and thus a Catholicis the opposite of a bourgeois. Middle class, middle man, incapable of great virtue or great vice: The bourgeois is the average man who does not accept to remain such, and who, lacking the strength sufficient for the conquest of essential values—those of the spirit—opts for material ones, for appearances.
Any assumption of legitimate political power government and rule by the bourgeoisie represented a fascist loss of totalitarian state power for social control through political unity—one people, one nation, and one leader. Sociologically, to the fascist man, to become a bourgeois was a character flaw inherent to the masculine mystique; therefore, the ideology of Italian fascism scornfully defined the bourgeois man as "spiritually castrated".
The material culture of the bourgeoisie concentrated on mass-produced luxury goods of high quality; between generations, the only variance was the materials with which the goods were manufactured. In the early part of the 19th century, the bourgeois house contained a home that first was stocked and decorated with hand-painted porcelainmachine-printed cotton fabrics, machine-printed wallpaperand Sheffield steel crucible and stainless.
The utility of these things was inherent to their practical functions.