Frontiers | The Deeper the Love, the Deeper the Hate | Psychology
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If one loves someone deeply and sometimes hates that person, the feeling of love may still be dominant in the context of betrayal. However, if one does not love that person, hate will be a much stronger feeling than love. Introduction Love and hate are important human affects that are of long-standing interest in psychology.
Increasingly, empirical research has been carried out on the relationship between love and hate. However, traditional psychological theories have mainly focused on love, especially romantic love. Love has been defined as an action Swensen,attitude Rubin,experience Skolnick,and even as a prototypical emotion Fehr and Russell, ; Post, ; Sober, ; Wyschogrod, Collectively, these definitions suggest that love is a multi-faced phenomenon Ekman, ; Izard, ; Tomkins, Hate, within the context of a romantic relationship, arises mainly from a relational betrayal.
Researchers have proposed a concept related to romantic hate, romantic jealousy, which describes the negative attitudes, anger, and fear associated with having a relationship partner Yoshimura, Love and hate are related to each other in a complex manner; the methodological approaches used by previous researchers have limited effectiveness in exploring the intricate relationship between love and hate. In addition, there has been little research on the psychological mechanisms that could explain the interrelations between love and hate.
Therefore, our study investigates how these two affects are related. To pursue such a research objective, one must consider how best to induce varying levels of feelings of love. Previous studies have found that attraction is a crucial condition for the development of romantic love Cutler et al. Similarity, rather than complementarity, plays a key role in attraction Berscheid and Reis, ; Luo and Klohnen, ; Hudson et al.
Many aspects of similarity have been studied in relation to attraction. In the current study, we focused on similarity in ideologies. That is, persons with similar ideologies defined here in terms of values and interests tend to form longer lasting and more harmonious relationships Buunk and Bosman, ; Lemay and Clark, Ideological similarity also implies commonalities in behaviors which further contribute to mutual attraction in the context of romantic love Schafer and Keith, From this perspective, similarity may be a key factor that influences the degree of love.
In addition, researchers found that differences in excellence levels, such as those relating to ability and achievement, between partners would also be an important factor influencing romantic relationships Conroy-Beam et al. In the present study, we manipulated the level of similarity and the level of excellence to induce different levels of love.
That is, we concurrently varied the levels of similarity and excellence of different targets. We explored whether participants felt stronger love for a target who was more similar to themselves when the targets and participants were of the same level of excellence. Additionally, we were also interested in whether participants have different emotional reactions toward different target persons in the context of romantic love and hate.
We examined two research questions in the current research. First, would there be greater feelings of love between two persons if they were more similar to each other? In this study, we implemented a paradigm similar to what has been used in previous research Takahashi et al. The characters in the scenario included one protagonist and three targets.
Participants read the scenario and imagined that they were the protagonist and were in a romantic relationship with one of the target.
We induced different levels of love by manipulating the degree of similarity e. We also induced hate using vignettes that showed target persons betraying the protagonist, such as going on dates or having affairs with people of the opposite-sex.
Materials and Methods Participants Sixty volunteers, recruited from different colleges, participated in the experiment. One participant had misunderstood the instructions and was thus excluded from the analyses. None of the participants reported any previous diagnoses of psychiatric or neurological illnesses. Each participant had provided written informed consent prior to participating in the experiment.
Love and hate relationship essay
They were also given small tokens of appreciation for their participation. Materials The vignettes used in the present experimental paradigm were adapted from a previous study that investigated the neural correlates of envy and schadenfreude Takahashi et al.
The vignettes were modified to fit the present romantic love context, according to the previous definitions of love Hatfield and Sprecher, ; Schafer and Keith, The people in the vignettes included one protagonist and three targets i. Participants were asked to study and understand the vignettes thoroughly and to imagine themselves as the protagonist in the vignettes. Target A was described as a person of equal level of excellence and high similarity to the protagonist, target B as equal level of excellence and low similarity to the protagonist, and target C as low level of excellence and low similarity to the protagonist target C.
See Supplementary Table S1 for details.
Quotes from romeo and juliet about love vs. hate
The PLS is suitable for individuals who are and are not in a relationship, and for individuals who have never been in a romantic relationship Hatfield and Sprecher, ; Aron et al. The reliability and validity of this scale have been established in previous studies Hatfield and Sprecher, ; Fehr, ; Hendrick and Hendrick, ; Fehr and Russell, Procedures Learning Materials The experiment consisted of two parts.
We induced feelings of love toward the targets in the participants the protagonists in Part 1 Figure 1and feelings of hate toward the targets in Part 2 Figure 2. Part 1 consisted of three phases: Love does seem to have a lot of definitions, whereas the word hate has numerous definitions but they are all centered on the same thing.
Love and hate essay | Radio Gong Stadtfestbühne
Both are powerful emotions It is fair to say that love and hate are powerful emotions. They may lead a person to be euphoric or very sad, and can both encourage anger and extreme happiness. It is possible to hate someone so much that you like it, and it is possible to love someone so much that you secretly hate them.
Both are very good for very good artistic expression There are many artists and creators that say their work came from their emotions of either love or hate. It seems that they are both good for creating inspiration and for helping a person maintain a concentrated effort so that their creative project is finished. Socialism and capitalism essay biblical ethics journal review essays documentary is a dissertation published your Describing a process essay beach Raksha bandhan essay in english university of sussex dissertations About hobbies essay xenophobia attack Structure words essay changer citing articles in an essay bible are dissertation writing services legal years essay letter of advice god computer or books essay teachers how to paragraph an essay development fight club essay intro, plan for essay writing year 6 management essay free on modern india about myself in essays gandhiji language teaching methods essay year 2.
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