Lutheranism - Wikipedia
1 William A. Mueller, Church and State in Luther and Calvin (New . Luther's view of the Church-the relation of the Catholic to .. enforce any particular belief. Roman Catholic belief that both faith and human effort are necessary currently affiliated with Georgia State University. The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. Full communion is when two denominations develop a relationship based on a  The two-realm teaching in Lutheran social ethics is something quite of church and state as it has evolved in the United States political tradition. Instead, they are intent on exercising political authority by identifying their beliefs and goals.
Luther advocated resistance only if the preaching of the Gospel was in jeopardy.
Nazi totalitarianism caught German Lutheranism unprepared to offer a clear rationale for opposing tyranny. The weakness of Lutheran theology on this point became evident during the period of Nazi rule. Thus, when the government decreed racially exclusionary laws, which had implications for the churches, most Lutheran theologians conceded that it had the authority to do so under the divine order.
The impact of Nazi Germany and other totalitarian regimes led some Lutheran church leaders, such as the German theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer and the Norwegian bishop Eivind Berggrav, to reconsider the traditional Lutheran view.
Ethics Lutheran ethical teaching has been described as centring on faith active in love, which means that the believer makes moral choices in freedomwithout preset rules and laws.
Lutheranism - Church and state | salonjardin.info
Lutheranism has thus eschewed the notion of a specifically Christian ethos but has insisted that the place of ethical endeavour is the common ordinary life, in which Christian believers are called upon to serve their neighbours. The emphasis in the traditional mass on the reiteration of the sacrifice of Jesus was replaced by an emphasis on thanksgiving.
A layman, Luther scholar Johann Georg Hamann —became famous for countering Rationalism and striving to advance a revival known as the Erweckung, or Awakening. Those associated with this Awakening held that reason was insufficient and pointed out the importance of emotional religious experiences. Although the beginning of this Awakening tended heavily toward Romanticismpatriotismand experience, the emphasis of the Awakening shifted around to restoring the traditional liturgy, doctrine, and confessions of the Lutheran church in the Neo-Lutheran movement.
Danish pastor and philosopher N. Grundtvig reshaped church life throughout Denmark through a reform movement beginning in Many Lutherans, called " Old Lutherans ", chose to leave the state churches despite imprisonment and military force.
A similar legislated merger in Silesia prompted thousands to join the Old Lutheran movement. The dispute over ecumenism overshadowed other controversies within German Lutheranism.
Although he received a large amount of slander and ridicule during his forty years at the head of revival, he never gave up his positions. Though raised a Jew, he was baptized as a Christian at the age of 19 through the influence of the Lutheran school he attended.
As the leader of a neofeudal Prussian political party, he campaigned for the divine right of kingsthe power of the nobilityand episcopal polity for the church. Along with Theodor Kliefoth and August Friedrich Christian Vilmarhe promoted agreement with the Roman Catholic Church with regard to the authority of the institutional churchex opere operato effectiveness of the sacraments, and the divine authority of clergy.
Unlike Catholics, however, they also urged complete agreement with the Book of Concord.
The Neo-Lutheran call to renewal failed to achieve widespread popular acceptance because it both began and continued with a lofty, idealistic Romanticism that did not connect with an increasingly industrialized and secularized Europe. He suggested that the Bible alone should be the guide for Christian life, and that German Christians did not need to listen or pay taxes!
Luther also disagreed with the idea that priests were needed to approach God on behalf of the people. Rather, he proposed a priesthood of all believers, saying that people could communicate with God directly.How Close Are Catholics and Lutherans to Reuniting?
Luther insisted that the church should use the common language of the people, and not Latin as was the practice in the Roman Catholic tradition. As a result, Luther led Mass in German and even translated the entire Bible into this European language. As you can see, Luther's conclusions had profound religious, political, and economic implications.
It is hardly surprising that the Pope and the Roman Catholic church responded as they did.