Personality differences between the sexes are largest in the most gender equal countries
This paper investigates gender differences in personality traits, both at the level absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed . Significant gender differences in personality were broadly consistent with gender stereotypes, but were not central to the relationship between personality and. When it comes to dating and forming relationships, there aren't too many " Evidence suggests that men and women differ in their expressions of partner's personality), which means it may take longer for a woman to 'warm.
In humans, males engage in crime and especially violent crime more than females. The involvement in crime usually rises in the early teens to mid teens which happen at the same time as testosterone levels rise. Most studies support a link between adult criminality and testosterone although the relationship is modest if examined separately for each sex.
However, nearly all studies of juvenile delinquency and testosterone are not significant. Most studies have also found testosterone to be associated with behaviors or personality traits linked with criminality such as antisocial behavior and alcoholism. Humans have modest general body sexual dimorphism on characteristics such as height and body mass.
However, this may understate the sexual dimorphism regarding characteristics related to aggression since females have large fat stores. The sex differences are greater for muscle mass and especially for upper body muscle mass. Men's skeleton, especially in the vulnerable face, is more robust.
Another possible explanation, instead of intra-species aggression, for this sexual dimorphism may be that it is an adaption for a sexual division of labor with males doing the hunting. However, the hunting theory may have difficulty explaining differences regarding features such as stronger protective skeleton, beards not helpful in hunting, but they increase the perceived size of the jaws and perceived dominance, which may be helpful in intra-species male competitionand greater male ability at interception greater targeting ability can be explained by hunting.
Another evolutionary theory explaining gender differences in aggression is the male warrior hypothesiswhich explains that males have psychologically evolved for intergroup aggression in order to gain access to mates, resources, territory and status. For example, on the scales measured by the Big Five personality traits women consistently report higher Neuroticism, agreeableness, warmth an extraversion facet  and openness to feelings, and men often report higher assertiveness a facet of extraversion  and openness to ideas as assessed by the NEO-PI-R.
Differences in the magnitude of sex differences between more or less developed world regions were due to differences between men, not women, in these respective regions. That is, men in highly developed world regions were less neurotic, extroverted, conscientious and agreeable compared to men in less developed world regions. Women, on the other hand tended not to differ in personality traits across regions.
Researchers have speculated that resource poor environments that is, countries with low levels of development may inhibit the development of gender differences, whereas resource rich environments facilitate them. This may be because males require more resources than females in order to reach their full developmental potential.
Hunter-gatherer societies in which humans originally evolved may have been more egalitarian than later agriculturally oriented societies. Hence, the development of gender inequalities may have acted to constrain the development of gender differences in personality that originally evolved in hunter-gatherer societies.
Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five
As modern societies have become more egalitarian again it may be that innate sex differences are no longer constrained and hence manifest more fully than in less developed cultures. Currently, this hypothesis remains untested, as gender differences in modern societies have not been compared with those in hunter-gatherer societies.
Based on data in Del Giudice, M. Individuals who score high on this dimension are emotionally cool; this allows them to detach from others as well as values, and act egoistically rather than driven by affect, empathy or morality. In large samples of US college students males are on average more Machiavellian than females; in particular, males are over-represented among very high Machiavellians, while females are overrepresented among low Machiavellians. Females were on average higher than males in extraversion, anxiety, trust, and, especially, tender-mindedness e.
Deficits in effortful control also showed a very modest effect size in the male direction. Sex differences favoring men were also found for more specific measures of engineering, science, and mathematics interests. This may be explained by the different social roles women and men have in different cultures, and by the status and power men and women hold in different societies, as well as the different cultural values various societies hold. According to the Primary Caretaker Hypothesis, prehistoric males did not have same selective pressure as primary caretakers so therefore this might explain modern day sex differences in emotion recognition and empathy.
Women also reported a more intense and more frequent experience of affect, joy, and love but also experienced more embarrassment, guilt, shame, sadness, anger, fear, and distress. Experiencing pride was more frequent and intense for men than for women.
Women also reported more fear in situations that involved "a male's hostile and aggressive behavior "  In anger-eliciting situations, women communicated more intense feelings of anger than men. Women also reported more intense feelings of anger in relation to terrifying situations, especially situations involving a male protagonist.
Women have been reported to be more responsive to this. Results from a study conducted by Robinson and colleagues implied that gender stereotypes are more influential when judging others' emotions in a hypothetical situation. An American Psychological Association article states that, "boys are generally expected to suppress emotions and to express anger through violencerather than constructively".
- Personality differences between the sexes are largest in the most gender equal countries
- Do men and women really have different personalities?
- Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five
A child development researcher at Harvard University argues that boys are taught to shut down their feelings, such as empathy, sympathy and other key components of what is deemed to be pro-social behavior. According to this view, differences in emotionality between the sexes are theoretically only socially-constructed, rather than biological. Context-based emotion norms, such as feeling rules or display rules, "prescribe emotional experience and expressions in specific situations like a wedding or a funeral ", independent of the person's gender.
In situations like a wedding or a funeral, the activated emotion norms apply to and constrain every person in the situation. Gender differences are more pronounced when situational demands are very small or non-existent as well as in ambiguous situations.
During these situations, gender norms "are the default option that prescribes emotional behavior" Associate Professor of pschology Ann Kring said[ when?
These researchers concluded that women and men experience the same amount of emotion, but that women are more likely to express their emotions. While girls and boys cry at roughly the same amount at age 12, by age 18, women generally cry four times more than men, which could be explained by higher levels of prolactin.
Men and women tend to use different neural pathways to encode stimuli into memory. While highly emotional pictures were remembered best by all participants in one study, as compared to emotionally neutral images, women remembered the pictures better than men.
This study also found greater activation of the right amygdala in men and the left amygdala in women. Women also show more consistency between individuals for the areas of the brain activated by emotionally disturbing images. Compared to the previous report five years earlier women more often reported progress with their lives while men were more optimistic about the future. Women were more concerned about home and family issues than men who were more concerned about issues outside the home.
Men were happier than women regarding the family life and more optimistic regarding the children's future.
Many mood disordersanxiety disordersand eating disorders are more common in women. One explanation is that men tend to externalize stress while women tend to internalize it. Gender differences vary to some degree for different cultures. One study found little empirical support for several proposed explanations, including biological ones, and argued that when depressed women tend to ruminate which may lower the mood further while men tend to distract themselves with activities.
This may develop from women and men being raised differently. Women have higher rates of anxiety and depression internalizing disorders and men have higher rates of substance abuse and antisocial disorders externalizing disorders.
It is believed that divisions of power and the responsibilities set upon each sex are critical to this predisposition. Namely, women earn less money than men do, they tend to have jobs with less power and autonomy, and women are more responsive to problems of people in their social networks.
These three differences can contribute to women's predisposition to anxiety and depression. It is suggested that socializing practices that encourage high self-regard and mastery would benefit the mental health of both women and men.
These findings make sense to evolutionary psychologists who say that our psychological traits today reflect the effect of survival demands experienced by our distant ancestors, and further, that these demands were different for men and women. For example, women with more nurturing personalities would have been more likely to succeed in raising vulnerable offspring, while men with bolder personalities would have been more successful in competing for mates.
In turn, these traits would have been passed down to successive generations. Some scholars and commentators are uncomfortable with such a biological account of human behaviour, however, which they feel underestimates the influence of the social and cultural forces that shape who we are and how we behave. This seems to run against the idea that our personalities develop from cultural expectations around traditional gender roles.
One explanation for this surprise finding is that the innate, biological factors that cause personality differences between men and women are more dominant in cultures where the genders are more equal.
Alamy Another way to look at this issue is to use an implicit measure of personality. This involves using speed of keyboard responses pressing different keyboard keys as fast as possible in response to different words to test how readily people associate words pertaining to themselves with those describing different personality traits.
A research team led by Michelangelo Vianello at the University of Padua in Italy used this approach in with a study involving over 14, people surveyed via the Project Implicit website.
Gender differences in personality were three times smaller using the implicit measure as compared with a standard personality questionnaire, suggesting the differences uncovered by standard questionnaires are influenced by conscious biases. And yet, while diminished, the implicit measure still revealed statistically significant differences in average personality between men and women, especially in relation to women scoring higher on Neuroticism and Agreeableness.
In short, this result suggests that gender differences in personality are there at a subconscious level, but studies which relied on self-reporting may have overstated differences in gender, perhaps in part because people wanted to fit in with cultural expectations.
While most large studies have tended to find the most consistent gender differences in the main traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness, other scholars have pointed out there could be more extensive differences if only one were to look in more detail.
Extraversion, for example, comprises two aspects: The researchers said that these would not have shown up in studies at the level of the Big Five traits, as used in most earlier research.
This is consistent with the size of the gender differences uncovered by McCrae and others in their large cross-cultural studies, which also tended to be quite subtle. We hear a lot from pop psychologists and cultural commentators about men and women being like different species. In they published a paper in which they claimed previous research had underestimated gender differences in personality by taking the average of all trait differences rather than viewing them cumulatively.
In an email, Del Giudice explained his approach to me with an analogy. Alamy What should we make of this bold claim? Other experts are less convinced.
While the debates about the size and causes of gender differences in personality are likely to rumble on for many more years, it seems reasonable to conclude that for whatever reason, there are at least some differences, however large or modest, in the personality of the average man and woman.
And remember that this is about personality, not all aspects of cognition and behaviour. There is increasing recognition of the part played by our personality traits in influencing our life choices and mental wellbeing.