Single Mothers by Choice: Mother–Child Relationships and Children's that solo motherhood, in itself, does not result in psychological problems for children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Volume 26, Issue 6, 1 September , Pages Methods: Fifty-eight mothers of children with mild to severe CP ages 16 to 52 Issue Section: Article. That representational models of relationships—beliefs. This study examined the role of the quality of mother-child and Article (PDF Available) in Journal of Youth and Adolescence 43(8) · September with Figure 3 revised Parent-child relationships psychological control aggression JOYO.
If you doubt that babies are born with their own temper, ask the mother of twins and she will tell you how different they were from the beginning.
Of course, our perception of the situations, our emotions and reactions influence our child and that is why we should take good care of our emotional state. Mother-child relationship Each mother-child relationship is unique and begins long before our child is born. Remember the time when you desired a child or your thoughts when you realized that you were pregnant. Not to mention your pregnancy and labor Did you want a child?
How did you react to the news? What physical and psychological state were you when you were pregnant? How did the delivery go?
The foundation of the mother-child relationship - Woman - Psychology | salonjardin.info
How was your first contact? Each of those steps was influenced by thoughts and emotions Each of those steps is part of your lives and of your relationship with your child.
Regret and guilt Many of you regret some thoughts, emotions or reactions. You wish things had been different and you are afraid of the consequences on your child or on your relationship. It surveys four areas of functioning—communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills—producing domain scores in each area as well as an overall composite score. Within each domain are three subdomains, which do not produce standard scores, but do produce age equivalents.
Test-retest reliability coefficients for the domain and composite scores are in the. Interrater reliabilities are in the. The Vineland was validated on a large national sample.
The Adaptive Behavior Composite score from the Vineland was used in this study as an index of the child's general developmental status. The PDI administered in this study was adapted from Aber et al.
The adaptation involved shortening the interview slightly in consultation with the interview's authors. Interview questions ask parents to recall specific interactions with their child and to describe their own and their child's emotional responses to the incidents discussed. All interviews were videotaped and administered by an interviewer trained in standardized administration.
The foundation of the mother-child relationship
Mothers' responses to the 13 adapted PDI questions were coded one question at a time from detailed notes using a standard procedure. They were coded on a set of six 4-point rating scales developed to reflect what parents say about caregiving, how they say it, and what emotion they express or exhibit as they discuss caregiving themes Pianta et al.
The scale for pain involves the mother expressing emotional pain concerning her child or her role as parent; this might include sadness or grief, or indication that raising this child is an emotional burden for her. Worry refers to the mother's concerns about the child's future: These six constructs are coded separately for each of the 13 PDI questions on a 4-point scale: For instance, a response is scored 1 on the compliance scale if the mother alluded to her child's compliance or noncompliance in an oblique fashion e.
All interviews were coded by more than one coder from a group of six coders. Twenty-eight percent of the interviews were coded by the entire working group independently in order to maintain reliability across all members of the group and different coding subgroups.
Seventy-two percent of the interviews were coded independently by teams of two individuals from the working group.
Team coders watched, took notes, and coded responses independently and met to establish consensus on disagreements after the entire interview had been coded independently. Consensus was established by review of the videotaped interview question, the coding manual, and by discussion. This scoring is hereafter referred to as cell-level. Due to a high base rate of zero codes, agreement also was calculated for nonzero cell-level codes and for presence versus absence of a construct.
There was a rate of In cells in which each of the 4-scale points was represented in the sample Distributions of the PDI scores tended to be positively skewed and kurtotic. Hence, we used the square root transformation procedure, which produced the most normal distributions. For the purposes of analysis, transformed cell scores were standardized, summed across questions, and averaged to produce composite mean scores for each construct, e. Interrater agreement for construct means was calculated using the intraclass correlation, ICC 2,i.
Raters were treated as classes in this analysis. Intraclass correlations for the six constructs ranged from. Thus, reliability analysis indicates adequate agreement for the purposes of using codes for specific constructs for individual questions e. Thus, we averaged the responses to the seven open-ended questions to derive scores for each of the six constructs under investigation.
For the remainder of the article, we will use these composite indices. Maternal Behavior During a Feeding Interaction. Two different procedures were used to code mothers' behavior with their children in a feeding situation Welch et al. The first approach uses global rating scales to evaluate the emotional quality of maternal behavior, and the other codes discrete behaviors reflecting a mother's technical skill in feeding.
The five scales assessing emotional quality—sensitivity, acceptance, interference, maternal delight, and maternal hostility—are scored on 7-point global-judgment scales. All of these scales required overall judgments about the quality of the mother's responses, attitudes, feelings, and actions toward her child while feeding. Codes for discrete maternal behaviors were drawn from the maternal behavior subscale of the Nursing Child Assessment Training: A mother's technical skill in feeding was assessed by rating dichotomously 27 discrete behaviors present or absent that are in turn summed to reflect two subscales: Interrater reliability was assessed via two coders, who coded 10 tapes each for comparison with a primary coder's ratings.
The average percentage of interrater agreement across all items for these 20 subjects was. The alpha reliability coefficient for the sensitivity subscale was. Data Analysis We first present descriptive statistics and correlations for child and mother characteristics, maternal representations, and feeding behaviors.
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To examine the relations between maternal report and maternal behavior, we performed a series of regression analyses. The Maternal Feeding Behavior Scale sensitivity and intrusiveness scores, as well as the five global ratings of mothers' feeding interactions, were the dependent variable in each analysis.
In each regression, three blocks of variables were entered. The first block included the child's Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite Standard score to account for variation in children's abilities.
In previous studies Button et al. Similarly, the Vineland proved to be a better indicator of the child attributes related to mothers' representations and behavior than did severity of CP Button et al.
Because of the wide age range in the sample of children, we examined child age and time since diagnosis as potential covariates and moderators. Neither was related to any of the parenting or interview variables, so both were dropped from further analyses.
The second block added the six PDI scores: The third block consisted of interaction terms for combinations of the representation codes and the Vineland e.