The Southern Colonies [salonjardin.info]
In contrast to New England and the middle colonies were the predominantly rural southern settlements: Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. supported by slave labor, held most of the political power and the best land. married couples, shooting matches and contests for making quilted blankets. Start studying Differences Between the Northern and Southern Colonies. The Northern Colonies were settled mainly for reasons of religious and political. Northern colonies were founded by pilgrims who wanted religious freedom Their differences in political, social, and economic issues shaped our country into what we are today. In Southern colonies, many people lived on large farms, known as plantations. The Relationship Between Slavery & Cotton.
The middles colonies had rich farmland and a moderate climate.
This made it a more suitable place to grow grain and livestock than New England. Their environment was ideal for small to large farms. The coastal lowland and bays provided harbors, thus the middle colonies were able to provide trading opportunities where the three regions meet in market towns and cities. The Southern colonies had fertile farmlands which contributed to the rise of cash crops such as rice, tobacco, and indigo. Plantations developed as nearly subsistent communities.
Slavery allowed wealthy aristocrats and large landowners to cultivate huge tracts of land. Notable differences are found in the way social life was structured among regions. For the people of the South, life emerged as rugged and rural while people of the North are heavily connected to the Church and village community. These cultural differences remained and shaped some of the confrontations that needed to be addressed during the Civil War.
Lesson Objective How did climate, geographic features, and other available resources distinguish the three colonial regions from each other? How did people use the natural resources of their region to earn a living or have their basic needs met? What are the benefits of specialization and trade?
How did political and social life evolve in each of the three regions? Materials Historical Reading Skills: Student Handout Procedure Hook: Have you ever thought of living in a place that is totally different from here? Take a moment to pick one place that is different from here. Describe the climate and the weather. Name some natural resources in that environment.
The Massachusetts Bay Company received a charter and was required by law to hold meetings with appointed stockholders and officers.
The Southern Colonies
All freed men were eligible to vote in such arrangements. In Virginia, on the other hand, an appointed colonial governor chose his council.
Colonial governors were less in touch with their citizens since they rarely traveled from England to America. Social Differences In the New England colonies, the Puritans and Quakers built their societies on precepts of the Bible, whereas southern colonies relied on a conventional, class-based society.
New Englanders valued education and promoted literacy to understand the Bible. In societies like those of the Quakers, even women were granted an education. Young men were expected to earn a trade or work towards a religious or political career. In Southern colonies, many people lived on large farms, known as plantations. Unequal - social, economic, and political inequality. The minority of European colonists consisted of free men and women; the majority consisted of laborers: Hierarchical and socially stratified according to wealth as dictated by English tradition: Composed of five groups: The Southern Colonies' economy was characterized by: Single crop economy - profitable, single crop farms growing tobacco, indigo, rice, hemp, and later on, cotton.
Rural areas with sparse settlements Export of agricultural goods Goal 6: To take an indepth exploration of three colonies - Jamestown in the south, Pennsylvania in the Middle, and Massachusetts in New England - and one of the most unusual of all the colonies - Georgia Jamestown Chronology Original maps of Jamestown http: Any "adventurer" who could pay 12 lbs, 10 shillings could purchase stock. The Company hopes to increase its profits in this corporate venture.
According to the first historian of the Virginia Colony, "The chief Design of all Parties concern'd was to fetch away the Treasure from thence, aiming more at sudden Gain, than to form any regular Colony. In December, men and boys leave England on three boats: Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery.
One person perished on the trip. Upon arrival, the written instructions of the Virginia Company decrees the colonists "were not permitted to manure or till any ground. In June, the first fort is finished, a "triangle-wise having three bulwarks at every corner like a half-moon, and four or five pieces of artillery mounted in them. This is a drawing of James Fort c. The sketch shows a flag-like projection which is more probably an enclosed garden.
The three sides and circular bastions at the corners are common to all three descriptions of the early fort. The two dots are most likely guard outposts.
Mid-year, one settler, who is named "JR" by late 20th Century archeologists, dies under mysterious circumstances. Full skeletal remains were found located within the first wooden palisade, indicating this young man died within a few months after arriving in May He had a lead bullet embedded in his lower leg. Painstaking investigation indicates he was shot at fairly close range and died of the injury.
We know from the diaries of John Smith and John Percy that a great deal of civil unrest existed from the wretched living conditions, the disappointment that the settler were not going to get rich, hunger, and disease - so it is clear he died at the hands of a fellow settler. Colonists meet Powhatan, the leader of the united Powhatan Indian confederacy in the area.
By the fall, 67 of the original settlers are dead. Smith begins to train volunteers to fight "amongst the trees" against any native attackers. Skirmishes between the Powhatans and the colonists began on a regular basis. Kidnappings and prisoner exchanges become more common. Smith leads the first colonial offensive in Virginia and destroys a series of native towns and canoes along the James River.
In April, supplies and between new colonists arrive from England. In the fall, the first women arrive in Jamestown. By the following year, about English women lived in Jamestown. The men were in Jamestown for over a year before an English woman arrived, two years before a significant number arrived. Although there are no official marriages recorded between the English and native women, a Spanish visitor reported in that as many as " First, the colonists must find something in Virginia of major value gold, passage to the Pacific, or the lost Roanoke Colony ; and second, Captain Newport was to place an English crown on Chief Powhatan's head thus rendering him a loyal prince of King James.
Newport attempts to carry out the coronation, but once Powhatan realizes that the crown means subjugation to the English king, he forbids his people to bargain with the English for food. Thus, the colonists face winter without the necessary grain they needed to survive.
The Colonists - What they created
The "Starving Time" begins. Supplies are low, nobody had planted enough corn to last through the winter, and there is not enough to eat. They turn to eating "doggs, Catts Ratts and myce" and some resort to boiling boot leather. Conditions are so desperate that one man "did kill his wife, powdered her, and had eaten part of her" before leaders discover his actions and have him executed. At the beginning of the year, colonists live in Jamestown; by the year's end, 60 survive.
Those who do survive are "so Leane that they looked Lyke Anotamies Cyreing owtt we are starved We are starved In June, the small number of survivors abandon Jamestown, only to meet the new governor, Lord Delaware, who orders them back, provides provisions to reinvigorate the colony, and places all colonists under martial law until the end of the year. Argall offers her freedom in exchange for English prisoners held by Powhatan.
Pocahontas is held first in Jamestown and then in other Virginia settlements where she becomes educated in the Christian faith. Rolfe cross-pollinates Indian tobacco with seeds brought over from England to make a sweeter tobacco that suits the taste of Europeans. He begins sending tobacco to England.
Rolfe takes Pocahontas and their young son, Thomas, to England. Seven months later, in March on the voyage home, Pocahontas dies, possibly of pneumonia.
The ship returns to England and Pocahontas is buried in a churchyard in Gravesend. Most have trades - especially in the lumber, glass, and pottery services. Virginia colonists export 18, pounds of tobacco to England. Two officials in Jamestown purchased them in exchange for food and supplies. In July, the first representative assembly in the "New World" begins. The Virginia Company orders the people of Jamestown "to establish one equal and uniform government over all Virginia" and to provide "just laws for the happy guiding and governing of the people there inhabiting.
This first meeting is the beginning of the Virginia General Assembly and a forerunner of the U. The first recorded laws concerning indentured servitude are passed in Jamestown during the first General Assembly. Indentured servitude in Virginia allows English servants to be bought and sold freely, used as gambling stakes, transferred to another master through a will, and taken by the sheriff for satisfaction of his master's debt.
The Virginia Company adopts a new policy for luring colonists to Virginia that allows individuals to own land for the first time since the settlement began. Colonists who arrived before would receive acres apiece "to be held by them and their heirs and assigns forever. Indentured servants received their allotment after their service was completed. This decision is indicative of a growing recognition that Jamestown must be more than just a commercial settlement and that in order to have a prosperous colony, it must be populated with families, women and children - and not just eager adventurers in constant need of supplies from home.
More than one-third of all the colonists - men, women, and children - are killed in one day. Jamestown is spared because the people had been forewarned by a "friendly" Indian.
Survivors are ordered to move into eight fortified settlements, one of which is Jamestown. Jamestown becomes the royal colony of Virginia. John Smith publishes A General Historie of Virginia in which he includes this sketch showing Smith taking an Indian chief hostage during a battle. There is no other history that can verify this alleged event.
All 23 black residents are servants. The two white servants are punished by an additional four years of service. The only black servant is forced to serve his master for the rest of his life. The General Assembly becomes largely independent of England. Somewhere between and colonists are killed. The General Assembly boasted that the natives were "so routed and dispersed that they are no longer a nation, and we now suffer only from robbery by a few starved outlaws.
Bacon dies of dysentery soon thereafter and the rebellion ends without its leader. The aftermath results in the hanging of several dozen survivors and the loss of much of the General Assembly's independence. Its early buildings disappear and the land reverts to agriculture. Bytheir archaeologists found the remains of the first Jamestown Fort. Since that time, the archaeological findings have changed the way we think about Jamestown. Ina royal charter made William Penn, a Quaker, the proprietor of the only ungranted land left along the North American coast.
Founded in by George Fox, the Quakers - called so because Fox urged them to "tremble at the name of the Lord" - had several very controversial beliefs: All people had "divinity within themselves," an "Inner Light" would could guide them along the path of righteousness, and all who obtained such divinity could also attain salvation. Society should be strictly egalitarian. All men and women were equal, not only in society but in their religious meetings.
No person had higher status than any others - therefore, they refused to bow to royalty or show their "social superior" the customary marks of respect like bowing and removing their hats. They were pacifists who refused to make war or swear oaths to a national entity.
Thus, bythe 40, English Quakers were suffering from severe persecution in England. The idea caught the attention of William Penn, a convert to Quakerism in Penn's father - a very wealthy man with close connection to the throne of Charles II - almost disowned his son over the conversion. Upon his father's death, Penn inherited a substantial estate, as well as a claim to a sizable loan his father had made to the Crown.
Charles II gave Penn proprietary rights to a huge track of land in America. Thus, insome settlers - most of whom were religious dissenters like the Quakers, Amish, Baptists, and Mennonites - had arrived in Pennsylvania. Pennyslvania's population tripled within five years and stood at 21, by About half were indentured servants and the remainder were families of free farmers and artisans.
People of diverse nationalities and religions came to the settlement, bringing experienced farmers and established merchants with trading connections. In Penn's First Frame of Government, drafted incolonists were guaranteed religious freedom, civil liberties, and elected representation. All free men were given the vote and the legislature they elected had full governing powers.
Anyone who could buy land could own land, and thus a thriving colony of small, independent landowning farmers arose - no clustering towns. Penn worked hard to ensure that no politically powerful landlords would be in control of economically dependent tenant farmers. Penn's policies helped Philadelphia to become a successful trading seaport which was supported by commercial agriculture.
Political, Social & Economic Differences Between the Northern & Southern Colonies During the 1600s
Quakers were pacifists who also believed the Indians rightfully owned the land. Thus, peace prevailed between the Lenni Lenapes - or Delawares in English a tribe of the Algonquin federation - and the settlers. Penn purchased all land from the Indians before colonization was permitted, prohibited the sale of alcohol to the tribe, strictly regulated the fur trade, and learned the Indian language.