Parasitic relationship in the rainforest

tropical rainforest by Aleah Thomas on Prezi

parasitic relationship in the rainforest

parasitism (one benefits, the other gets hurt). 1. when aphids eat the plant leaves off of flowers. the plant gets killed, while the aphid gets food. 2. the strangler fig. These Symbiotic Relationships in the Rainforest are Truly Remarkable into three different types - mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. The symbiotic relationships in the rainforest are complicated webs of mutually beneficial interactions between Parasites in the Rain Forest.

parasitic relationship in the rainforest

When one of the two organisms involved benefits from the interaction, while the other remains unaffected, it is known as 'commensalism relationship'. And lastly, when one organism benefits from the interaction at the cost of the other organism - which is subjected to harm, it is known as 'parasitism relationship'.

parasitic relationship in the rainforest

Mutualism The relationship between the capuchin monkeys and flowering trees in the tropical rainforests is the best example of mutualism in this biome. When the capuchin monkey feeds on nectar in these flowers by lapping it up, it gets pollen on its face - which it eventually transfers to other flowers in the process of feeding on them.

In this way, the trees provide the capuchin species with food, while the capuchin monkey facilitates pollination of flowers of this tree.

parasitic relationship in the rainforest

Commensalism The relationship between ecitoninae - the New World army ants, inhabiting the rainforest floor, and antbirds - small dull-colored South American bird species, is the best example of commensalism. These army ants are notorious for their tendency to take on anything that comes in their path while they march the forest floor.

These are ideal homes for the midges that it needs to pollinate its flowers.

These Symbiotic Relationships in the Rainforest are Truly Remarkable

Once the flowers are pollinated, they grow into large, brightly-colored seed pods. The seed pods are filled with a delicious, fleshy pulp and bitter seeds.

With these pods, the chocolate tree attracts monkeys and squirrels that eat the pods but spit out the bitter seeds, in another symbiotic relationship. The chocolate tree relies on this relationship to scatter its seeds so more chocolate trees can grow. A more complex three-way arrangement is the infestation of chocolate trees with mealy bugs.

parasitic relationship in the rainforest

The bugs don't harm the chocolate tree but the tree doesn't receive any direct benefit either. The mealy bugs are raised and taken care of by black ants that eat the waste honeydew the mealy bugs produce. In their own symbiotic relationship, the black ants keep other insects away from the mealy bugs, and as a side benefit, keep away other insects that could harm the chocolate tree.

The chocolate tree has one more symbiotic relationship down by its roots.

These Symbiotic Relationships in the Rainforest are Truly Remarkable

A fungus grows on the roots and receives its nourishment from the tree. The chocolate tree in turn is able to absorb nutrients from the soil more effectively due to the presence of the fungus. Symbiotic relationships are not limited to rain forests and even humans have symbiotic relationships with domesticated animals and plants.

parasitic relationship in the rainforest

Recently, it has been realized that the ant-fungal association is even more complex. But when the garden is stressed, or if the ants are removed, the Escovopsis fungi explode in numbers and overwhelm the fungal garden.

Then the ant population will decline due to lack of food, at least until another garden can be established.

It appears that still other compounds produced by the ants may act to inhibit the growth of alien bacteria and fungi which might invade the garden, although the exact roles of these secretions are not yet known Ariniello, ; Currie, Certain Passifloraceae plants have odd relationships with Heliconiine butterflies.

The butterflies lay their eggs on the tips of the plant shoots which the caterpillars like to eat. When there are no eggs on the shoots, the plant produces yellow nectaries which mimic eggs, or other structures stipules which look like young caterpillars. Very common are highly specific relationships between a pollinator species and a plant, such as those between figs and their wasp pollinators. Figs are dioecious, that is, they have separate male and female plants.

Parasites in the Rain Forest | Sciencing

The male dies, and the female wasp leaves the fruit, picking up pollen from the male flower within the fig. She then flies to another tree which has young figs, and enters a fruit.

Amazing Symbiosis: Ant Army Defends Tree - National Geographic

If the fig is female, and contains female flowers, pollen on her body will fertilize them; seeds will subsequently form. The wasp grub developing from this egg consumes the ovary of the gall flower and develops into an adult wasp.