Peter I | Biography, Accomplishments, Facts, & Significance | salonjardin.info
Elizabeth ( – ), the daughter of Peter the Great and his second wife, Catherine I, Her domestic policies allowed the nobles to gain dominance in local government Many attribute its popularity to Elizabeth's relationship with Alexei. Peter the Great inherited a score of problems in the administration of his empire. As his own rule shows, and later on the rule of Catherine the Great, the greatest . Moreover, “entrance into service brought personal nobility, while those of. Read the biographies of Peter the Great and other rulers of Russia in St. The marriage was not a happy one: neither Eudoxia or their son Alexey shared In the same year, Peter married Marta Skavronskaya, the future Empress Catherine I. army based on compulsory military service for all nobles and on recruitments .
The census ofhowever, was followed by the substitution of a poll tax for the previous hearth tax; and this provoked a wave of popular discontent, against which Peter decided to distribute the army regiments released from active service by the Peace of Nystad in garrisons throughout the country and to make their maintenance obligatory on the local populations.
The regimental commanders, with their own sphere of jurisdiction and their own requirements, added another layer to the already complex system of local authority.
In he abolished the boyarskaya duma, or boyar council, and established by decree the Senate as the supreme organ of state—to coordinate the action of the various central and local organs, to supervise the collection and expenditure of revenue, and to draft legislation in accordance with his edicts.
Martial discipline was extended to civil institutions, and an officer of the guards was always on duty in the Senate. Their activities were controlled, on the one hand, by the General Regulation and, on the other, by particular regulations for individual colleges, and indeed there were strict regulations for every branch of the state administration.
Crimes against the state came under the jurisdiction of the Preobrazhensky Office, responsible immediately to the tsar. In order to provide armaments and to build his navy Russia had virtually no warships at allmetallurgical and manufacturing industries on a grand scale had to be created; and Peter devoted himself tirelessly to meeting these needs. Large capital investments were made, and numerous privileges were accorded to businessmen and industrialists.
The methods of other countries were further studied, and foreign experts were invited to Russia. The overall result was satisfactory: The armed forces Peter established a regular army on completely modern lines for Russia in the place of the unreliable streltsy and the militia of the gentry.
While he drew his officers from the nobility, he conscripted peasants and townspeople into the other ranks. Service was for life. The troops were equipped with flintlock firearms and bayonets of Russian make; uniforms were provided; and regular drilling was introduced.
For the artillery, obsolete cannons were replaced with new mortars and guns designed by Russian specialists or even by Peter himself he drew up projects of his own for multicannon warships, fortresses, and ordnance.
Catherine the Great (1729 – 1796)
Several special schools prepared their pupils for military or naval service and finally enabled Peter to dispense with foreign experts. In the Old Church Slavonic alphabet was modernized into a secular script. Peter was the first ruler of Russia to sponsor education on secular lines and to bring an element of state control into that field. Various secular schools were opened; and since too few pupils came from the nobility, the children of soldiers, officials, and churchmen were admitted to them.
In many cases, compulsory service to the state was preceded by compulsory education for it. The translation of books from western European languages was actively promoted. The Russian Academy of Sciences was instituted in Beside his useful measures, Peter often enforced superficial Europeanization rather brutally; for example, when he decreed that beards should be shorn off and Western dress worn.
He personally cut the beards of his boyars and the skirts of their long coats kaftany. The Raskolniki Old Believers and merchants who insisted on keeping their beards had to pay a special tax, but peasants and the Orthodox clergy were allowed to remain bearded. The Holy Synod ferociously persecuted all dissenters and conducted a censorship of all publications. The regular clergy were forbidden to allow men under 30 years old or serfs to take vows as monks.
The church was thus transformed into a pillar of the absolutist regime. Partly in the interests of the nobility, the extent of land owned by the church was restricted; Peter disposed of ecclesiastical and monastic property and revenues at his own discretion, for state purposes.
The material position of the landed nobility was strengthened considerably under Peter. Almostacres of land andserfs were allotted to it in the first half of the reign alone. Moreover, a decree of that instituted succession by primogeniture and so prevented the breaking up of large properties also removed the old distinction between pomestya lands granted by the tsar to the nobility in return for service and votchiny patrimonial or allodial lands so that all such property became hereditary.
This replaced the old system of promotion in the state services, which had been according to ancestry, by one of promotion according to services actually rendered.
It classified all functionaries—military, naval, and civilian alike—in 14 categories, the 14th being the lowest and the 1st the highest; and admission to the 8th category conferred hereditary nobility. The predominance of the boyars ended. Personality and achievement Peter was of enormous height, more than six and one-half feet two metres tall; he was handsome and of unusual physical strength. Unlike all earlier Russian tsars, whose Byzantine splendours he repudiatedhe was very simple in his manners; for example, he enjoyed conversation over a mug of beer with shipwrights and sailors from the foreign ships visiting St.
Restless, energetic, and impulsive, he did not like splendid clothes that hindered his movements; often he appeared in worn-out shoes and an old hat, still more often in military or naval uniform. He was fond of merrymaking and knew how to conduct it, though his jokes were frequently crude; and he sometimes drank heavily and forced his guests to do so too.
A just man who did not tolerate dishonesty, he was terrible in his anger and could be cruel when he encountered opposition: Sometimes Peter would beat his high officials with his stick, from which even Prince A.Peter the Great - History of Russia in 100 Minutes (Part 11 of 36)
Menshikovhis closest friend, received many a stroke. He always acted as an autocrat, convinced of the wonder-working power of compulsion by the state.
Russo-Persian War[ edit ] Russian empress travelling, Burney In the Treaty of Georgievsk Russia agreed to protect Georgia against any new invasion and further political aspirations of their Persian suzerains.
Catherine waged a new war against Persia in after they, under the new king Agha Mohammad Khanhad again invaded Georgia and established rule in and had expelled the newly established Russian garrisons in the Caucasus.
The ultimate goal for the Russian government, however, was to topple the anti-Russian shah kingand to replace him with a half-brother, Morteza Qoli Khanwho had defected to Russia and was therefore pro-Russian. The Russian troops set out from Kizlyar in April and stormed the key fortress of Derbent on 10 May. The event was glorified by the court poet Derzhavin in his famous ode; he later commented bitterly on Zubov's inglorious return from the expedition in another remarkable poem.
By mid-June, Zubov's troops overran without any resistance most of the territory of modern-day Azerbaijanincluding three principal cities— BakuShemakhaand Ganja.
By November, they were stationed at the confluence of the Araks and Kura Riverspoised to attack mainland Iran.
In that month, the Empress of Russia died and her successor Paulwho detested that the Zubovs had other plans for the army, ordered the troops to retreat to Russia. This reversal aroused the frustration and enmity of the powerful Zubovs and other officers who took part in the campaign: Relations with Western Europe[ edit ] See also: She pioneered for Russia the role that Britain later played through most of the 19th and early 20th centuries as an international mediator in disputes that could, or did, lead to war.
Inshe established a League of Armed Neutralitydesigned to defend neutral shipping from the British Royal Navy during the American Revolution. From toRussia fought a war against Swedena conflict instigated by Catherine's cousin, King Gustav III of Swedenwho expected to simply overtake the Russian armies still engaged in war against the Ottoman Turks, and hoped to strike Saint Petersburg directly.
Denmark declared war on Sweden in the Theatre War. Peace ensued for 20 years, aided by the assassination of Gustav III in Partitions of Poland[ edit ] Main article: Although the idea of partitioning Poland came from the King Frederick II of PrussiaCatherine took a leading role in carrying it out in the s. Inshe formally became protector of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealthwhich provoked an anti-Russian uprising in Poland, the Confederation of Bar — After the uprising broke down due to internal politics in the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, she established in the Rzeczpospolita, a system of government fully controlled by the Russian Empire through a Permanent Councilunder the supervision of her ambassadors and envoys.
After the French Revolution ofCatherine rejected many principles of the Enlightenment she had once viewed favourably. Afraid the May Constitution of Poland might lead to a resurgence in the power of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and the growing democratic movements inside the Commonwealth might become a threat to the European monarchies, Catherine decided to intervene in Poland. She provided support to a Polish anti-reform group known as the Targowica Confederation.
This spurred Russian interest in opening trade with Japan to the south for supplies and food. Russian local authorities helped his party, and the Russian government decided to use him as a trade envoy. Subsequently, inthe Russian government dispatched a trade mission to Japan, led by Adam Laxman.
The Tokugawa shogunate received the mission, but negotiations failed.
The Reign of Peter the Great
Economics and finance[ edit ] Catherine the Great Russian economic development was well below the standards in western Europe. Historian Francois Cruzet writes that Russia under Catherine: Still, there was a start of industry, mainly textiles around Moscow and ironworks in the Ural Mountains, with a labor force mainly of serfs, bound to the works.
They indeed helped modernise the sector that totally dominated the Russian economy. They introduced numerous innovations regarding wheat production and flour milling, tobacco culture, sheep raising, and small-scale manufacturing.
Biography of Peter the Great of Russia
It opened in St. Petersburg and Moscow in Several bank branches were afterwards established in other towns, called government towns. Paper notes were issued upon payment of similar sums in copper money, which were also refunded upon the presentation of those notes.
The emergence of these Assignation rubles was necessary due to large government spending on military needs, which led to a shortage of silver in the treasury transactions, especially in foreign trade, were conducted almost exclusively in silver and gold coins.
Assignation rubles circulated on equal footing with the silver ruble; a market exchange rate for these two currencies was ongoing. The use of these notes continued until Russian Enlightenment Marble statue of Catherine II in the guise of Minerva —by Fedot Shubin Catherine had a reputation as a patron of the arts, literature, and education.
The Hermitage Museumwhich now [update] occupies the whole Winter Palacebegan as Catherine's personal collection. She wrote comedies, fiction, and memoirs, while cultivating VoltaireDiderotand d'Alembert —all French encyclopedists who later cemented her reputation in their writings.
The leading economists of her day, such as Arthur Young and Jacques Neckerbecame foreign members of the Free Economic Societyestablished on her suggestion in Saint Petersburg in Catherine enlisted Voltaire to her cause, and corresponded with him for 15 years, from her accession to his death in He lauded her accomplishments, calling her "The Star of the North" and the " Semiramis of Russia" in reference to the legendary Queen of Babylona subject on which he published a tragedy in Though she never met him face to face, she mourned him bitterly when he died.
She acquired his collection of books from his heirs, and placed them in the National Library of Russia.
Four years later, inshe endeavoured to embody in legislation the principles of Enlightenment she learned from studying the French philosophers. She called together at Moscow a Grand Commission—almost a consultative parliament—composed of members of all classes officials, nobles, burghersand peasants and of various nationalities. The Commission had to consider the needs of the Russian Empire and the means of satisfying them.
The Empress herself prepared the "Instructions for the Guidance of the Assembly"pillaging as she frankly admitted the philosophers of Western Europe, especially Montesquieu and Cesare Beccaria. As many of the democratic principles frightened her more moderate and experienced advisors, she refrained from immediately putting them into practice. After holding more than sittings, the so-called Commission dissolved without getting beyond the realm of theory.
In spite of this, Catherine began issuing codes to address some of the modernisation trends suggested in her Nakaz.
The statute sought to efficiently govern Russia by increasing population and dividing the country into provinces and districts. By the end of her reign, 50 provinces and nearly districts were created, more than double the government officials were appointed, and they were spending six times as much as previously on local government.
InCatherine conferred on the nobility the Charter to the Nobilityincreasing further the power of the landed oligarchs. Nobles in each district elected a Marshal of the Nobility, who spoke on their behalf to the monarch on issues of concern to them, mainly economic ones. In the same year, Catherine issued the Charter of the Towns, which distributed all people into six groups as a way to limit the power of nobles and create a middle estate.
Inthe Empress described to Voltaire her legal innovations within a backward Russia as progressing "little by little". During Catherine's reign, Russians imported and studied the classical and European influences that inspired the Russian Enlightenment. Gavrila DerzhavinDenis Fonvizinand Ippolit Bogdanovich laid the groundwork for the great writers of the 19th century, especially for Alexander Pushkin. Catherine became a great patron of Russian opera. When Alexander Radishchev published his Journey from St.
Petersburg to Moscow in one year after the start of the French Revolution and warned of uprisings because of the deplorable social conditions of the peasants held as serfsCatherine exiled him to Siberia.
I could only stare at her. Firstly I was very surprised at her small stature; I had imagined her to be very tall, as great as her fame. She was also very fat, but her face was still beautiful, and she wore her white hair up, framing it perfectly.
Catherine the Great - Wikipedia
Her genius seemed to rest on her forehead, which was both high and wide. Her eyes were soft and sensitive, her nose quite Greek, her colour high and her features expressive. She addressed me immediately in a voice full of sweetness, if a little throaty: I am very fond of the arts, especially painting. I am no connoisseur, but I am a great art lover. I have said that she was quite small, and yet on the days when she made her public appearances, with her head held high, her eagle-like stare and a countenance accustomed to command, all this gave her such an air of majesty that to me she might have been Queen of the World; she wore the sashes of three orders, and her costume was both simple and regal; it consisted of a muslin tunic embroidered with gold fastened by a diamond belt, and the full sleeves were folded back in the Asiatic style.
Over this tunic she wore a red velvet dolman with very short sleeves. The bonnet which held her white hair was not decorated with ribbons, but with the most beautiful diamonds. Catherine believed education could change the hearts and minds of the Russian people and turn them away from backwardness. This meant developing individuals both intellectually and morally, providing them knowledge and skills, and fostering a sense of civic responsibility.
She also established a commission composed of T.
Dilthey, and the historian G. She consulted British education pioneers, particularly the Rev. Daniel Dumaresq and Dr John Brown. The commission studied the reform projects previously installed by I. They submitted recommendations for the establishment of a general system of education for all Russian orthodox subjects from the age of 5 to 18, excluding serfs. In JulyDumaresq wrote to Dr. John Brown about the commission's problems and received a long reply containing very general and sweeping suggestions for education and social reforms in Russia.
Brown argued, in a democratic country, education ought to be under the state's control and based on an education code. He also placed great emphasis on the "proper and effectual education of the female sex"; two years prior, Catherine had commissioned Ivan Betskoy to draw up the General Programme for the Education of Young People of Both Sexes.