Symbiotic Relationships and Fungus Examples | The Fungal Kingdom
In this case both the plant and the fungus depend on this relationship to develop and survive. This special symbiosis ('living together') is known as a 'mutualism'. In mutualisms both symbionts benefit from the interaction. Parasitism. Here are some examples of fungi that act as parasites or pathogens: Among the less devastating crop plant pathogens is Ustilago maydis, a basidiomycete which is. A tapeworm can live in a parasitic symbiotic relationship with a cow. Corn smut, Ustilago maydis, is a prime example of fungal parasitism of corn. a fungal partner and a plant partner is the mutualistic symbiosis most.
Symbioses are intimate associations involving two or more species. Fungi have evolved numerous symbioses involving diverse eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Traditionally, symbioses are categorized according to the relative benefit or harm that the partners experience properly conceived in terms of fitnessreproductive success as a consequence of the interactions.
In parasitism one partner benefits from the association, but the other partner is harmed. In mutualisms both symbionts benefit from the interaction. In commensalism, one partner benefits, but there is no perceived effect on the other partner.
The evolution of reciprocal parasitism. The categories given above are useful for conceptualizing the diversity of symbioses, but they oversimplify the nature of the interactions, especially mutualisms. It is now appreciated that even in the most benign associations there is a basic conflict of interest among the partners, both of which are trying to maximize their reproductive output at the expense of the other partner.
Thus, many ecologists and evolutionary biologists now regard mutualisms and other symbioses as reciprocal parasitism. That being said, the following discussion provides examples of selected fungal symbioses, divided into the traditional if flawed categories of parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism. Parasitism Here are some examples of fungi that act as parasites or pathogens: Animal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis chytridiomycete causes amphibian chytridiomycosis—a recently discovered disease that is implicated in the worldwide decline of amphibians.
The emergence of this outbreak may be linked to Global Warming. Among the less devastating crop plant pathogens is Ustilago maydis, a basidiomycete which is eaten as a delicasy in latin america. An ear of corn is infected with Ustilago maydis, the corn smut.
Symbiotic Relationships and Fungus Examples
Fungal parasites Asterophora parasitica basidiomycete is a mushroom that grows on mushrooms. Hypomyces lactifluorum ascomycete is a parasite of fleshy mushrooms basidiomycetes. Asterophora parasitica left, click for an artistic rendering attacking a Russula mushroom and undergoing ID right attacking a bolete mushroom.
Mutualism Many fungal mutualisms are driven by the ability of the fungus to decompose organic substrates that are inaccessible to its host.
Fungi Symbiosis ( Read ) | Biology | CK Foundation
Again, it is often not clear to what extent the two partners benefit experience enhanced fitnesswhich calls into question the classification of these interactions as mutualisms. Lichens are symbioses involving fungi and unicellular algae The fungi are mostly ascomycetes, but there are also a few basidiolichens. The algae are mostly eukaryotic green algae, but there are also some cyanobacterial symbionts.
The fungi obtain carbohydrates from the algae, which are photosynthetic and contribute the green color to the lichen thallus. Many lichens are sensitive to air pollution and are indicators of air quality.
Multiclavula mucida, a lichenized basidiomycete left and Parmelia sp. Mycorrhizae have evolved repeatedly in different groups of fungi.
- MUTUALISMS BETWEEN FUNGI AND ANIMALS
There are two major forms of mycorrhizae: Endomycorrhizal fungi penetrate and enter the cells of a plant root intracellular. Modern research has lead to the recognition of seven types of mycorrhizal fungi, subdividing the old, traditional groups. The new nomenclature is often more precise and specific to the associated plant taxa. The relatively homogenous ectomycorrhizal group largely remains with only the addition of the subgroup ectendomycorrhizas.
The endomycorrhizal group has been dismantled, but specific types are now recognized: Vescicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizas, the Orchid mycorrihzas, and those which associate with the Ericaceae Blueberry family: Fungi are heterotropic organisms, and must absorb their food. Fungi also have the ability to easily absorb elements such a phosphorus and nitrogen which are essential for life.
Plants are autotropic, producing their food in the form of carbohydrates through the process of photosynthesis. However, plants often have difficulty obtaining and absorbing many of the essential nutrients needed for life, specifically nitrogen and phosphorus.
In order to maximize both organisms abilities to thrive most plants allow, and indeed require, mycorrhizal fungi to colonize their roots. In this symbiotic and intimate relationship the hyphae of the fungus greatly increases the surface area that is open to nutrient and water absorption, maximizing the plants access to these essential compounds and elements.