Rosalind Franklin :: DNA from the Beginning
James WatsonWikipediaFranklin's perseverance continued to shine as comments on the rocky relationship between Franklin and Wilkins. Sadly, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, working in the same field, Wilkins would agonize about repairing their relationship, but the. At King's College London, Rosalind Franklin obtained images of DNA using Franklin's images allowed James Watson and Francis Crick to create The relationship between Wilkins and Franklin was unfortunately a poor.
Watson and Crick began building the correct backbone of their famous model of DNA less than two weeks after learning crucial helical parameters from these two Franklin sources.
At approximately the same time, Rosalind Franklin started writing a draft paper specifying her DNA findings, which she finished one day before Watson and Crick completed their paper.
She measured the unit cell dimensions and classified the space group as C2, but did not realize, as Crick did, its implication that the two sides of the sugar-phosphate backbone must run in opposite directions anti-parallel. Her photograph 51 was clear enough to allow her to precisely determine the 34 angstrom helical repeat and the 20 angstrom helical diameter.
Crick and Watson (1916-2004)
She never knew that her data critically contributed to the Watson and Crick proposal. In it he creates a cruel caricature of Franklin that omits her finer attributes while emphasizing and distorting her more negative qualities. Sounding like a misogynist, Watson paints a misleading, physically unattractive, and hostile image of Franklin as if this had anything to do with her professional competence. Ironically, simultaneously, he for the first time publicly gives her work widespread proper credit.
In contrast, when she was not working, Rosalind Franklin was very sociable and was known for her intellectual interests, her passionate love of life and her sense of fun. Most people thought Rosalind very attractive with her graceful long slender figure, fashionable tailored dress and brilliant eyes.
She had numerous close lifelong friends who, together with their children, adored her company and even tolerated her preference for third-class accommodations and rigorous hikes for the sheer fun of traveling with her. Within five years she published seventeen papers on TMV, five alone, and twelve in collaboration with the team she directed.
This was probably the first example of structural virology. In Rosalind Franklin traveled widely in the United States and had fallen in love with one of the scientists she met, but she soon suffered the first symptoms of the ovarian cancer that was to cause her untimely death, so she immediately ended the relationship with this man.
Two years later she died of the disease, at the age of thirty-seven. Always preferring to live on her modest salary, she left most of her inherited money to charity.
Her photographs are among the most beautiful X-ray photographs of any substance ever taken. The Double Helix, Critical Edition ed. The Path to the Double Helix. Rosalind Franklin and DNA. The Eighth Day of Creation: The Makers of the Revolution in Biology.
Nobel Prize Women in Science. Genesis of a Discovery. Together, they constituted one of the most important scientific discoveries in history. The first, purely theoretical, article was written by Watson and Crick from the University of Cambridge. The model the Cambridge duo put forward did not simply describe the DNA molecule as a double helix. It was extremely precise, based on complex measurements of the angles formed by different chemical bonds, underpinned by some extremely powerful mathematics and based on interpretations that Crick had recently developed as part of his PhD thesis.
The historical whodunnit, and the claims of data theft, turn on the origin of those measurements. The four protagonists would make good characters in a novel — Watson was young, brash, and obsessed with finding the structure of DNA; Crick was brilliant with a magpie mind, and had struck up a friendship with Wilkins, who was shy and diffident.
BBC - History - Crick and Watson
From the outset, Franklin and Wilkins simply did not get on. Wilkins was quiet and hated arguments; Franklin was forceful and thrived on intellectual debate. Her friend Norma Sutherland recalled: It was a disaster. Their three-stranded, inside-out model was hopelessly wrong and was dismissed at a glance by Franklin.
Rosalind Franklin - Wikipedia
But despite the excitement that Watson felt, all the main issues, such as the number of strands and above all the precise chemical organisation of the molecule, remained a mystery.
A glance at photo 51 could not shed any light on those details. What Watson and Crick needed was far more than the idea of a helix — they needed precise observations from X-ray crystallography. Those numbers were unwittingly provided by Franklin herself, included in a brief informal report that was given to Max Perutz of Cambridge University.
Crick now had the material he needed to do his calculations. Those numbers, which included the relative distances of the repetitive elements in the DNA molecule, and the dimensions of what is called the monoclinic unit cell — which indicated that the molecule was in two matching parts, running in opposite directions — were decisive. The report was not confidential, and there is no question that the Cambridge duo acquired the data dishonestly.