This essay will therefore present infant and caregiver temperament influences, on attachment relationship. Differences in maternal and paternal attachments. Therefore, an avoidant mother–child relationship in infancy could influence the Keywords: Temperament, parent–child relationships, attachment, aggression. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament.
This essay has previously mentioned how the sensitivity of different caregivers may vary towards their infant. Thus, the author suggests that this variability in sensitivity may result from differences between infants' temperaments.
If this were the case, one would assume that similar attachments would be formed with both caregivers i. For example, if a father clashed with his son they were both stubborndifficulties could arise in their attachment. If a child and a parent shared similar interests for example, they both loved ballet their bond could be enhanced. Research has shown that each caregiver establishes different relationships with the same child Goosens and van Ijzendoorn, However, evidence for the consistency between mother and father attachment to their infant is disputed.
Further studies have reportedly shown similarities between maternal and paternal parenting styles, in their reactions towards the same child Fox, Kimmerly, and Schafer, ; Rosen and Rothbaum, Further investigations into the influence of interactions between mother, father and child characteristics on attachment relationships, need exploring.
Although temperament is thought to be stable Lemery et alSroufe disagreed, and in addition dismissed claims that temperament predicts attachment. Rosen and Rothbaum have also demonstrated poor associations between parental behaviour and attachment security.
However, Brehar et al found that the caregiver's behaviour does affect attachment. For example, parental interaction especially fathers Notaro and Volling, towards an infant is suggested to motivate the child Kelly, Brownell and Campbell, Individuals' internal working models Bowlby, enable interactions within the personal and physical world which are consequently important in attachment development.
Supportiveness and accessibility are crucial personality characteristics within the caregivers' working model van de Boom, Thus, temperament is suggested to be associated with the quality of interaction, which may predict attachment outcomes.
Therefore, the author suggests that caregivers with more 'active' temperaments may facilitate better attachment relationships.
Although, Weber, Levitt, and Clark, suggested that infants may learn avoidant defensives as a result of very reactive carers. Three possible relations between temperament and attachment Goldsmith and Campos, have been documented: Secondly, both temperament and attachment manifestation may be influenced by the caregivers' social responsiveness'.
Lastly, assessments in the strange situation may be directly influenced by temperament differences, which in turn may not determine attachment. However, only the first and second proposal is thought to be accustomed with the relationship viewpoint Sroufe, However, other socialisation practices may participate in determining attachment between infant and caregiver.
For example, shared environmental influences of both infant and caregiver, are proposed to need exploring to explain infant temperament and hence attachment Goldsimth et al,as it is noted temperaments of both are not single contributors Buss and Plomin, bb. It has been suggested that, caregiver parenting styles and individual differences in infant temperament may contribute to how secure an infant is Goldsmith et al, Thus, it is proposed that maternal sensitivity and infant temperament are united in relation to attachment.
The essay concludes [as Campos, suggested] that both caregiver and infant temperament are needed to determine attachment status. Attachment classification from the perspective of infant-caregiver relationships and infant temperament. Cited in Durkin, K.
From infancy to old age. Early developing Personality Traits.
Developing a strong, beneficial relationship with your child
Lawrence Erlburum Associates, Publishers: Child Development, 56, deVries, M. American Journal of Psychiatry, 10 Child Development, 62, Child Development, 58, Goldsmith and Campos Cited in Sroufe, L. Child Development, 56, Goldsmith, H. Quality of infants' attachments to professional caregivers: Relation to infant-parent attachment and day-care characteristics.
Child Development, 61, A longitudinal study of Icelandic children. Developmental Psychology, 33 2 A replication study with fathers and mothers.
Infant Behaviour and Development, 22 3Kagan Cited in Weber, R.
Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?
Individual verification in attachment security and strange situation behaviour: The role of maternal and infant temperament. Child Development, 57, Kelly, S. Child Development, 71 4Lemery, K. Developmental Psychology, 35 1 Addressing contamination of measures. Child Development, 69 1 Infants at social risk: Parents act as direct instructors, indirect socializers and social managers for their children.
As a parent you will influence your children through the rules you set for them, the information, advice, and strategies you provide them with, your daily actions, which show them how they should behave in day-to-day situations, and by managing their activities and social interactions. Therefore it is important to understand that how you parent your child has a significant impact on his identity development as well as how he interacts with others and views the world.
According to Baumrind, there are four different styles in which you, as a parent, can fulfill these roles. A parent who has high levels in both categories is described as an authoritative parent. This is considered to be the most positive parenting style. As an authoritative parent you would have a strong emotional tie to your child, but would also be highly demanding, with rules and expectations you expect your child to meet.
Authoritative parents are the most likely to beneficially influence their child and guide them to success. As an authoritative parent you should try to set clear rules for your child to follow, with consequences when those rules are broken, and occasional rewards when you feel they are doing well.
If your child goes out before doing an assignment, and fails to complete it as a result, you could tell the child that he cannot go out for a week. On the contrary if you feel your child has done a good job keeping up with his schoolwork and grades, you could get him something that they wanted, or take him out to do something fun. In these cases the consequence for breaking the rules provides an incentive to follow them in the future, while the reward provides further incentive to continue to follow the rules.
You also want to be able to negotiate with your child. He tells you that although he has not finished his schoolwork, he does not have a lot to complete. If you feel that he has done a good job of dealing with their work recently then you may want to consider allowing it as long as he guarantees to get the work done immediately after returning home, with more severe consequences if he fails to do so.
Try to compromise with him when possible. Doing this can help develop a strong, beneficial relationship between yourself and your child. If you respond to his needs, he may feel closer to you, and more inclined to meet your expectations. This can lead your child to begin to set goals for himself, along with plans to meet them independently.
This not only sets him up for immediate success in school or whatever he is focusing on, but also in the future when dealing with college or work. He will be more motivated to complete his work to the best of his ability and to work past any barriers or conflicts that arise. Works Cited Allard, Lindsey T. This entry was posted in News.