Memorandum: Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments
Relations With Native American. Tribal Governments. ◇ Exec. Order on. Consultation and Coordination With. Indian Tribal Governments. The Department of Justice Policy on Indian Sovereignty and Government-to- Government Relations with Indian Tribes reaffirms the Justice. Current Policy & Practice. Native American Tribes are sovereign nations and have formal relationships with the U.S. Federal Government.
In a series of new treaties the U.
In addition, the Indians were given a yearly payment that would include money in addition to food, livestock, household goods and farming tools. These reservations were created in an attempt to clear the way for increased U. Most importantly many of the native peoples did not completely understand the document that they were signing or the conditions within it; moreover, the treaties did not consider the cultural practices of the Native Americans.
In addition to this, the government agencies responsible for administering these policies were irked with poor management and corruption, in fact many treaty provisions were never carried out.
Dishonest bureau agents often sold the supplies that were intended for the Indians on reservations to non-Indians.
Moreover, as settlers demanded more land in the West, the federal government continually reduced the size of the reservations. In an attempt to force Native Americans onto the reservations and to end the violence, the U. In the federal government passed a pivotal law stating that the United States would no longer treat Native American groups as independent nations.
By making Native Americans wards of the U. In order to accomplish this, the government urged Native Americans to move out of their traditional dwellings, move into wooden houses and become farmers. The federal government passed laws that forced Native Americans to abandon their traditional appearance and way of life.
Some laws outlawed traditional religious practices while others ordered Indian men to cut their long hair.
Native Americans in the United States - Wikipedia
Agents on more than two-thirds of American Indian reservations established courts to enforce federal regulations that often prohibited traditional cultural and religious practices. To speed the assimilation process, the government established Indian schools that attempted to quickly and forcefully Americanize Indian children.
These new policies brought Native Americans closer to the end of their traditional tribal identity and the beginning of their existence as citizens under the complete control of the U.
According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living on this continent since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories. Other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River. Archeological and linguistic data has enabled scholars to discover some of the migrations within the Americas. The Clovis culturea megafauna hunting culture, is primarily identified by the use of fluted spear points.
Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in near Clovis, New Mexico. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis pointa flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft. Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11, and 10, radiocarbon years B.
Linguists, anthropologists, and archaeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into North America, later than the first Paleo-Indians. They constructed large multi-family dwellings in their villages, which were used seasonally. People did not live there year-round, but for the summer to hunt and fish, and to gather food supplies for the winter. Archaic period in the Americas Since the s, archeologists have explored and dated eleven Middle Archaic sites in present-day Louisiana and Florida at which early cultures built complexes with multiple earthwork mounds ; they were societies of hunter-gatherers rather than the settled agriculturalists believed necessary according to the theory of Neolithic Revolution to sustain such large villages over long periods.
The Formative, Classic and post-Classic stages are sometimes incorporated together as the Post-archaic period, which runs from BCE onward. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations.
They were connected by a common network of trade routes,   This period is considered a developmental stage without any massive changes in a short period, but instead having a continuous development in stone and bone tools, leather working, textile manufacture, tool production, cultivation, and shelter construction.
Their gift-giving feast, potlatchis a highly complex event where people gather in order to commemorate special events.
India–United States relations
These events include the raising of a Totem pole or the appointment or election of a new chief. The most famous artistic feature of the culture is the Totem pole, with carvings of animals and other characters to commemorate cultural beliefs, legends, and notable events. A map showing approximate areas of various Mississippian and related cultures. The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately CE to CE, varying regionally.