Symbiosis | salonjardin.info
Some of these relationships benefit both the rhino and its symbiotic partner Oxpecker birds (Buphagus erythrorhynchus), also called tickbirds. filarial lesions over sites of tick attachment on black rhino. Moreover .. RMG's short-term year goal is to achieve a D. b. minor meta-population of 3 individuals .. Oxpeckers, like other birds, have excellent eyesight. It is ironic then that symbiotic mutualism -a relationship between The purpose of this paper is to articulate a framework for the future . erythrorhynchus), a smallish bird that feeds off ticks, flies, and maggots in the rhino's.
Mutualistic Relationships in a Rhino's Gut Rhinoceroses are ungulates: They eat tough plant matter but are not able to digest the cellulose their food contains. They rely on microflora that are able to digest this material, releasing nutrients like fatty acids that the host animal can absorb and use for energy — an example of mutualism.
The hosts don't ruminate like cattle; the microflora work in the host's hindgut. Studies of white rhino dung show bacteria of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominating the microflora living in the rhino gut, along with many other unclassified bacteria. A Symbiotic, but Parasitic, Relationship in a Rhino's Gut The rhinoceros bot fly Gyrostigma rhinocerontis lives exclusively in the digestive tracts of both white and black rhinoceroses.
The adults, which are the largest flies in Africa, lay their eggs on the skin of rhinos, and the larvae burrow into the rhino's stomach, where they attach and live through larval stages called "instars. Then they have only a few days to find another rhinoceros host. This symbiotic relationship has no benefit to the rhino hosts, while the flies are "obligate parasites," which means they're dependent on the rhinos — they can't complete their life cycle without them.
A Highly Visible Example of Symbiosis Oxpecker birds Buphagus erythrorhynchusalso called tickbirds, specialize in riding on large African animals, including rhinos and zebras, feeding on external parasites like the bot-fly larvae and ticks.
Some species of vascular plants do not contain chlorophyll, the chemical necessary for photosynthesis, or the conversion of light energy from the Sun into usable chemical energy in a plant.
Such a plant is like a person missing a vital organ, and under normal circumstances, it would be impossible for the plant to survive. Yet the Indian pipe, or Monotropa uniflora, has managed to thrive despite the fact that it produces no chlorophyll; instead, it depends entirely on mycorrhizal fungus to supply it with the organic nutrients it needs. This obligate relationship is just one example of the critical role mycorrhizae perform in the lives of plants throughout the world.
Mycorrhizae are vital to plant nutrition, especially in places where the soil is poor in nutrients. Whereas many plant roots develop root hairs as a means of facilitating the extraction of water and nutrients from the soil, plant roots that have a mycorrhizal fungus usually do not. Instead, these plants rely heavily on the fungus itself to absorb moisture and vital chemical elements from the ground. This means that it may be difficult or impossible for plants to survive if they are removed from an environment containing mycorrhizal fungus, a fact that indicates an obligate relationship.
Often, when species of trees and shrubs grown in a greenhouse are transplanted to a non-forested outdoor habitat, they exhibit signs of nutritional distress. This happens because the soils in such habitats do not have populations of appropriate species of mycorrhizal fungi to colonize the roots of the tree seedlings. If, however, seedlings are transplanted into a clear-cut area that was once a forest dominated by the same or closely related species of trees, the plants generally will do well.
This happens because the clear-cut former forest land typically still has a population of suitable mycorrhizal fungi. Plants' dependence on mycorrhizal fungi may be so acute that the plants do not do well in the absence of such fungi, even when growing in soil that is apparently abundant in nutrients.
CMOs And Pharma Sponsors: Who's The Rhino And Who's The Tickbird?
Although most mycorrhizal relationships are not so obligate, it is still of critical important to consider mycorrhizal fungi on a site before a natural ecosystem is converted into some sort of anthropogenic habitat that is, an area dominated by humans—see Biomes.
For example, almost all the tree species in tropical forests depend on mycorrhizae to supply them with nutrients from the soils, which are typically infertile. See The Biosphere for more about the soil in rain forests. If people clear and burn the forest to develop new agricultural lands, they leave the soil bereft of a key component. Even though some fungi will survive, they may not necessarily be the appropriate symbionts for the species of grasses and other crops that farmers will attempt to grow on the cleared land.
Interkingdom and Intrakingdom Partnerships Mycorrhizae are just one example of the ways that mutualism brings into play interactions between widely separated species—in that particular case, between members of two entirely different kingdoms, those of plant and fungi. In some cases, mutualism may bring together an organism of a kingdom whose members are incapable of moving on their own plants, fungi, or algae with one whose members are mobile animals or bacteria.
An excellent example is the relationship between angiosperm plants and bees, which facilitate pollination for the plants see Ecosystems and Ecology. Another plant-insect mutualism exists between a tropical ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea and a shrub known as the bull's horn acacia Acacia cornigera.
The latter has evolved hollow thorns, which the ants use as protected nesting sites. The bull's horn acacia has the added benefit, from the ant's perspective, of exuding proteins at the tips of its leaflets, thus providing a handy source of nutrition. In return, the ants protect the acacia both from competition with other plants by removing any encroaching foliage from the area and from defoliating insects by killing herbivorous, or plant-eating, insects and attacking larger herbivores, such as grazing mammals.
A much less dramatic, though biologically quite significant, example of interkingdom mutualism is the lichen. Lichen is the name for about 15, varieties, including some that are incorrectly called mosses e. Before the era of microscopy, botanists considered lichens to be single organisms, but they constitute an obligate mutualism between a fungus and an alga or a blue-green bacterium. The fungus benefits from access to photosynthetic products, while the alga or bacterium benefits from the relatively moist habitat that fungus provides as well as from enhanced access to inorganic nutrients.
In contrast to these cross-kingdom or interkingdom types of mutualism, there may be intrakingdom within the same kingdom symbiotic relationships between two very different types of animal. Often, mutualism joins forces in such a way that humans, observing these interactions, see in them object lessons, or stories illustrating the concept that the meek sometimes provide vital assistance to the mighty.
One example of this is purely fictional, and it is a very old story indeed: Aesop 's fable about the mouse and the lion.
In this tale a lion catches a mouse and is about to eat the little creature for a snack when the mouse pleads for its life; the lion, feeling particularly charitable that day, decides to spare it. Before leaving, the mouse promises one day to return the favor, and the lion chuckles at this offer, thinking that there is no way that a lowly mouse could ever save a fierce lion. Then one day the lion steps on a thorn and cannot extract it from his paw.
Rhinos & the Oxpecker Bird | Animals - salonjardin.info
He is in serious pain, yet the thorn is too small for him to remove with his teeth, and he suffers hopelessly—until the mouse arrives and ably extracts the thorn. Many real-life examples of this strong-weak or big-small symbiosis exist, one of the more well-known versions being that between the African black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis and the oxpecker, or tickbird.
The oxpecker, of the genus Buphagus, appears in two species, B. It feeds off ticks, flies, and maggots that cling to the rhino's hide. Thus, this oddly matched pair often can be seen on the African savannas, the rhino benefiting from the pest-removal services of the oxpecker and the oxpecker enjoying the smorgasbord that the rhino's hide offers.
Humans engage in a wide variety of symbiotic relationships with plants, animals, and bacteria. Bacteria may be parasitic on humans, but far from all microorganisms are parasites: The relationship of humans to animals that provide a source of meat might be characterized as predation i.
In any case, our relationship to the animals we have domesticated, which are raised on farms to provide food, is a mixture of predation and mutualism.
For example, cows Bos taurus benefit by receiving food, veterinary services, and other forms of care and by protection from other predators, which might end the cows' lives in a much more unpleasant way than a rancher will. All important agricultural plants exist in tight bonds of mutualism with humans, because human farmers have bred species so selectively that they require assistance in reproducing.
For example, over time, agricultural corn, or maize Zea mayshas been selected in such a way as to favor those varieties whose fruiting structure is enclosed in a leafy sheath that does not open and whose seeds do not separate easily from the supporting tissue. In other words, thanks to selective breeding, the corn that grows on farms is enclosed in a husk, and the kernels do not come off of the cob readily.
Such corn may be desirable as a crop, but because of these characteristics, it is incapable of spreading its own seeds and thereby reproducing on its own. Obviously, agricultural corn is not on any endangered species list, the reason being that farmers continue to propagate the species through breeding and planting.
Another example of human-animal mutualism, to which we alluded earlier, is the relationship between people and their pets, most notably dogs Canis familiaris and house cats Felis catus.
Rhinos & the Oxpecker Bird
Fed and kept safe in domestication, these animals benefit tremendously from their interaction with humans. Humans, in turn, gain from their pets' companionship, which might be regarded as a mutual benefit—at least in the case of dogs. And even cats, though they pretend not to care much for their humans, have been known to indulge in at least a touch of sentimentality.
In addition, humans receive other services from pets: Symbiosis Among Insects Where insects and symbiosis are involved, perhaps the ideas that most readily come to mind are images of parasitism. Indeed, many parasites are insects, but insects often interact with other species in relationships of mutualism, such as those examples mentioned earlier bees and angiosperms, ants and bull's horn acacia plants.
Additionally, there are numerous cases of mutualism between insect species. One of the most intriguing is the arrangements that exists between ants and aphids, insects of the order Homoptera, which also are known as plant lice. In discussing the ant-aphid mutualism, scientists often compare the aphids to cattle, with the ants acting as protectors and "ranchers.
In return, ants protect aphid eggs during the winter and carry the newly hatched aphids to new host plants. The aphids feed on the leaves, and the ants receive a supply of honeydew. In another mutualism involving a particular ant species, Formica fusca, two organisms appear to have evolved together in such a way that each benefits from the other, a phenomenon known as coadaptation.
This particular mutualism involves the butterfly Glaucopsyche lygdamus when it is still a caterpillar, meaning that it is in the larval, or not yet fully developed, stage. Like the aphid, this creature, too, produces a sweet "honeydew" solution that the ants harvest as food. In return, the ants defend the caterpillar against parasitic wasps and flies. As the old saying goes, "One man's meat is another man's poison"—in other words, what is beneficial to one person may be harmful to another.
So it is with symbiotic relationships, and often a creature that plays a helpful, mutualistic role in one relationship may be a harmful parasite in another interaction.
Aphids, for instance, are parasitic to many a host plant, which experiences yellowing, stunting, mottling, browning, and curling of leaves as well as inhibiting of its ability to produce crops. One particular butterfly group, Heliconiinae a member of the Nymphalidae, largest of the butterfly families furnishes another example of the fact that a mutualistic symbiont, in separate interaction, can serve as a parasite.
Moreover, in this particular case the heliconius butterfly can be a mutualistic symbiont and parasite for the very same plant. Heliconius butterflies scatter the pollen from the flowers of passionflower vines genus Passiflorathus benefiting the plant, but their females also lay eggs on young Passiflora shoots, and the developing larva may eat the entire shoot. As an apparent adaptive response, several Passiflora species produce new shoots featuring a small structure that closely resembles a heliconius egg.
A female butterfly that sees this "egg" will avoid laying her own egg there, and the shoot will be spared. Commensalism Years ago a National Geographic article on the Indian city of Calcutta included a photograph that aptly illustrated the idea of commensalism, though in this case not between animals or plants but between people.
The photograph showed a street vendor in a tiny wooden stall with a window, through which he sold his wares to passers-by. It was a rainy day, and huddled beneath the window ledge which also served as a counter-top was another vendor, protecting himself and his own tray of goods from the rain. The photograph provided a stunning example, in microcosm, of the overpopulation problem both in Calcutta and in India as a whole—a level of crowding and of poverty far beyond the comprehension of the average American.
At the same time it also offered a beautiful illustration of commensalism though this was certainly not the purpose of including the picture with the article. The vendor sitting on the ground acted in the role of commensal to the relatively more fortunate vendor with the booth, who would be analogous to the host.
The relationship was apparently commensal, because the vendor on the ground received shelter from the other vendor's counter without the other vendor's suffering any detriment.
If the vendor in the booth wanted to move elsewhere, and the vendor on the ground somehow prevented him from doing so, then the relationship would be one of parasitism. And, of course, if the vendor with the booth charged his less-fortunate neighbor rent, then the relationship would not be truly commensal, because the vendor on the ground would be paying for his shelter.
To all appearances, however, the interaction between the two men was perfectly commensal. Plants that grow on the sides of other plants without being parasitic are known as epiphytic plants.