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ALASKA. CANADA. Whittier. Anchorage. Gulf of Alaska. Glacier Bay and do not apply to singles or third- and fourth-berth guests; contact Princess . 2. Cruising the Pacific Ocean. 3. Juneau. LATE NIGHT. 11 AM. 10 PM. ◁. 4 . meet a sled dog team, watch bears or fish for salmon, take a flightseeing tour or . treatments. They were high school sweethearts and knew each other for 80 years. Joe was a lifelong resident of Atlantic City, where he practiced medicine and raised his family. Related Videos. developed with YouTube. Atlantic and Pacific oceans mix | Gulf of Alaska where two oceans meet but do not mix. Having an uneven combination of mountain, forest and tidewater glaciers, Gulf of Alaska is the place where two oceans meet, but interestingly.
The nearly landlocked Arctic Ocean collects approximately 10 percent of the world's river runoff. Some of these rivers transport organic, inorganic, and radioactive pollutants. Russia, Canada, the United States, and several European nations share international boundaries in the Arctic.
Significant mineral and petrochemical resources exist in the marginal Seas. The arctic region plays an important role in global climate. The region supports unique marine ecosystems that depend on, and are sensitive to, the ice cover.
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For both global and domestic reasons, it is important that the United States acquire a knowledge base sufficient to understand arctic processes relevant to the specific interests listed above. The United States needs both year-round access and a long-term presence in the Arctic. Many of the important questions in the Arctic e.
In past years, the U. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, and associated economic difficulties in Russia, it is likely that the United States will need to play an expanded role in arctic science.
Oil Biodegradation and Bioremediation: A Tale of the Two Worst Spills in U.S. History
In addition, areas that were previously inaccessible because of Soviet policies may be open to U. Coordination on national and international levels will be necessary to use resources efficiently to achieve science goals.
There is a lack of strong, coherent, coordinated U. Background of the Study Discussion of the need for a dedicated research vessel for the Arctic began in the mids. Concurrently with NSF's planning, the U. Healy under construction, with science support identified as its primary mission.
More recently, limited access to a nuclear submarine has enabled scientists to achieve some important arctic scientific sampling goals. The potential for access to a nuclear submarine dedicated to arctic research has generated enthusiasm in many scientific disciplines because of the unique capabilities of such a vessel.
Page 11 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The charge for the study included a review and analysis of the scientific requirements for an arctic research vessel and evaluation of the NSF-proposed ARV in light of other research facilities available. The committee was selected to provide a breadth of expertise in the principal marine science disciplines; marine engineering; and research vessel design, scheduling, and use.
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The goal was to include broad representation from the scientific community as well as specific arctic science experience see Appendix B for biographies of the committee members. The committee met three times between February and May One meeting included a symposium focused on arctic science goals and needs. The committee considered many research platforms that are either in use or likely to be available for arctic programs.
However, once it became clear that both stationary and underway at-sea access are required to meet scientific objectives, and that the nation already possesses facilities relevant to other platforms e. The committee benefited from the significant work that had been performed by the scientific community in developing and articulating arctic science goals.
A number of reports, listed in the reference section, were available to the committee to aid in its deliberations. Many of these reports concluded that a surface icebreaker dedicated to research was needed in the Arctic.
Debunked: Two oceans meet but don’t mix in the Gulf of Alaska
NRC reports published in and documented the need for a dedicated arctic research vessel. Previous Polar Research Board reports have recommended procurement of such a vessel based on the requirements of the arctic marine science community NRC, The arctic geoscience community reaffirms this need NRC,p.
The UNOLS Fleet Improvement Committee document recommended that the acquisition of a dedicated arctic research vessel be accorded the highest priority.
Lighter crudes, such as the oil released from the BP Deepwater Horizon spill, contain a higher proportion of simpler lower molecular weight hydrocarbons that are more readily biodegraded than heavy crudes, such as the oil released from the Exxon Valdez.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are a minor constituent of crude oils; however, they are among the most toxic to plants and animals.
Anaerobic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons can also occur albeit at a much slower rates. Microorganisms require elements other than carbon for growth. The concentrations of these elements in marine environments—primarily nitrates NO3—phosphates POand iron Fe —can limit rates of oil biodegradation. Having an adequate supply of these rate limiting nutrients when large quantities of hydrocarbons are released into the marine environment is critical for controlling the rates of biodegradation and hence the persistence of potentially harmful environmental impacts.
Debunked: Two oceans meet but don't mix in the Gulf of Alaska - NobleDrift
Bioremediation, which was used extensively in the Exxon Valdez spill, involved adding fertilizers containing nitrogen N nutrients to speed up the rates of oil biodegradation.
Most petroleum hydrocarbons are highly insoluble in water. Hydrocarbon biodegradation takes place at the hydrocarbon—water interface. Thus the surface area to volume ratio of the oil can significantly impact the biodegradation rate.
Dispersants, such as Corexitwhich was used during the BP Deepwater Horizon spill, increase the available surface area and, thus, potentially increase the rates of biodegradation. Overarching Differences Between the Two Spills Once the BP Deepwater Horizon oil leak started, the public and the popular media began to compare it to the Exxon Valdez spill which had been up until that time the largest marine spill in the United States.
The public notoriety of Exxon Valdez spill was dramatic due to its impact on Alaska wildlife and the long litigation process, which is still seeing court action. The BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill was more than an order of magnitude greater in total volume of oil than the Exxon Valdez spill; the BP spill also released considerable amounts of natural gas methane CH4.