This is what Ibnu Taymiyyah said, “ the shariah verses have come to invite towards ijtihad and creativity and to make these processes as the means for. Ijtihad is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a. The real difference between Islamic ijtihad and secular endeavors is not as much . // or /);Abd Allah ibn Umar al Baidawi (d CE);.
It was the duty of the educated jurists to come to a ruling that would be in the best interest of the Muslim community and promote the public good. As religious law continued to develop over time, ra'y became insufficient in making sure that fair legal rulings were being derived in keeping with both the Qur'an and Sunna. However, during this time, the meaning and process of ijtihad became more clearly constructed.
Ijtihad was "limited to a systematic method of interpreting the law on the basis of authoritative texts, the Quran and Sunna," and the rulings could be "extended to a new problem as long as the precedent and the new situation shared the same clause. Mujtahid is defined as a Muslim scholar that has met certain requirements including a strong knowledge of the Qur'anSunnaand Arabic, as well as a deep understanding of legal theory and the precedent; all of which allows them to be considered fully qualified to practice ijtihad.
They claimed that instead of looking solely to previous generations for practices developed by religious scholars, there should be an established doctrine and rule of behavior through the interpretation of original foundational texts of Islam—the Qur'an and Sunna.
Islamic modernism Starting in the middle of the 19th century, Islamic modernists such as Sir Sayyid Ahmed KhanJamal al-din Al-Afghaniand Muhammad Abduh emerged seeking to revitalize Islam by re-establish and reform Islamic law and its interpretations to accommodate Islam with modern society.
They are very much not divine or immutable, and have no more legal justification to be part of the sharia than the adaat of Muslims living beyond the home of the original Muslim in the Arab Hejaz. The ummah was no longer a homogenous group but comprised of various cultural communities with their own age-old customs and traditions. In Indonesia, following considerable debate among the ulemaIndonesian adaat "become part of Sharia as applicable in that country".
Asghar Ali Engineer argues that while the Arab adaat the Quran was revealed in was "highly patriarchal" and still informs what is understood as sharia, the "transcendental Quranic vision" is for "absolutely equal rights" between genders and should guide ijtihad of sharia.
They criticize taqlid and believe ijtihad makes modern Islam more authentic and will guide Muslims back to the Golden Age of early Islam. Salafis assert that reliance on taqlid has led to Islam 's decline. The Muslim Brotherhood holds that the practice of ijtihad will strengthen the faith of believers by compelling them to better familiarize themselves with the Quran and come to their own conclusions about its teachings.
But as a political group the Muslim Brotherhood faces a major paradox between ijtihad as a religious matter and as a political one. Ijtihad weakens political unity and promotes pluralism, which is also why many oppressive regimes reject ijtihad's legitimacy. He criticized the Saudi regime for disallowing the "free believer"  and imposing harsh restrictions on successful practice of Islam.
Thus, Bin Laden believed his striving for the implementation of ijtihad was his "duty" takleef. The female equivalent is a mujtahida. In general mujtahids must have an extensive knowledge of Arabic, the Qur'an, the Sunnahand legal theory Usul al-fiqh. In order to clarify how ijtihad differs in Sunni and Shi'i Islam it is necessary to explore the historical development of this position in both branches.
The sources and principles of Shari'ah, while enjoying the allegiance of the vast majority in Muslim societies, are not taught or applied in a cohesive, consistent or comprehensive manner. This has resulted in the existence of simultaneously running, parallel disciplines - secular and religious-that are often conflicting, rather than complimentary.
Shari'ah is not taught today as an integral part of legal learning, and it is not applied by a unified court system. Consequently, it is becoming less and less practical and dynamic; it is losing its vitality and ability to affect the lives of people and their societies. It is becoming unable to fulfill its role as a source of guidance meant to remove conflicts and improve the conditions of people.
Furthermore, Shari'ah today functions more in fatwa pronouncements than decisions of judges. Unlike judges' decisions, fatawa, given by scholars who do not have to worry about the gravity of their impact on society, tend to be idealistic and less practical.
Sometimes, they even ignore the changing circumstances of the societies. Such problems will continue unless Shari'ah is incorporated into the overall legal system. Some Muslims say that the door of ijtihad was closed in the fourth century of hijrah; others disagree. Whatever position one may take, the fact is that there is a great need for the renewal of ijtihad today; ijtihad is essential for the revival of Muslim states and societies. However, the basic condition for ijtihad is freedom of expression.
There cannot be true ijtihad unless scholars are free to express their opinions, and other scholars are free to critique.
Freedom of expression is ingrained in the precepts and practices of ijtihad. This means that the democratization of Muslim societies and basic freedom for scholars are essential for ijtihad. Change in the Muslim educational system is also overdue and necessary. The curricula of religious schools and seminaries should be improved. Instead of studying only one madhhab Sunni madhahib in Sunni schools and Shi'i madhahib in Shi'i schoolsall known madhahib of Sunnah and Shi'ah should be taught.
Instead of teaching rulings and interpretations of the schools, the evidences and methods of interpretations should be taught.
Comparative religion, modern logic, philosophy, psychology, history, economic and political theories should also be studied. The scope of the objectives should be further elaborated and refined with the help of our ever growing knowledge and experiences, as well as the work of past scholars. Islamic schools and seminaries should pay more attention to the valuable body of Islamic literature on this subject, including the works of scholars such as Abu Mansur al-Samarqandi al-Maturidi d.
Zakariyya al-Razi Rhazes ca. While fully benefiting from the great work of our past scholars, we must also try to improve on their foundations, utilizing new knowledge and epistemology. In addition to learning from the work of the great scholars of usul, we should also pay attention to two issues in our new methodology of ijtihad. First, ijtihad should not be used to isolate Muslims or to make them lose their identity.
Thus, he was able to attract a considerable number of followers amongst his family members, relatives and close friends for three years before he was ordered by Allah SWT to propagate openly to the Meccan people al-Buti, In doing so, the Prophet has demonstrated the excellent qualities of a religious leader, who was not only focused towards spreading the message of Islam but also considerate enough to ensure the safety of his followers apart from assessing the political and social conditions of Mecca at that time and planning for the future.
Nonetheless, if the policy or decision made by the Prophet pbuh was deemed by Allah SWT as not the best of choices, the revelation also served to remind him of his ultimate objective. For example, in the aftermath of the Battle of Badr, the Prophet has decided, after consulting his Companions, to allow each of the prisoners captured during the battle to redeem themselves through material means.
However, Allah SWT has reminded him that it was not commendable since many of the prisoners were arch enemies of Islam and by allowing their release might be harmful for the religion of Islam and Muslims.
In addition, the prophet has also inculcated the concept of ijtihad amongst his Companions. In a hadith, the Prophet has actively encouraged the creative process of ijtihad by promising rewards to whoever practiced it regardless of the outcome.
Yet, to exercise ijtihad in the religious domain requires fulfillment of a number of conditions. Thus, the Prophet often used creative measures in attempting to reflect the understanding of his Companions on this important religious precept.
If a claimant comes to you for legal recourse, what judgment would you give?
IJTIHAD - Interpreting Islamic Principles
I would deliver the judgment in the light of the Quran. Again the Prophet asked him: I would act on the way the Messenger of Allah has done and deliver the judgment according to that. Once more the Prophet asked: What if the solution is not found even in my practice? In such a situation I would exercise ijtihad. These questions are fundamental in nature as they reflect the principles of deriving the religious rulings on a certain matter based on the religious sources.
Some of his Companions understood his order literally and they did not pray until they arrived at the place of Quraizah. When told of their actions and decisions, the Prophet did not blame any of them al-Mubarakfuri, n.
This case is an excellent example of the flexibility of the Prophet pbuh in terms of his thinking. His approval of both the actions of his Companions indicated the verity of both kinds of understanding — literal and contextual — which are crucial in solving problems and making decisions.
Not only has he encouraged creative thinking and the process of ijtihad amongst his Companions, but he also taught them the important lesson of tolerance and accepting differences of opinions, especially in matters relating to religion and the Law. In education, the implementation of new, interesting, unique, strange and helpful teaching and learning environment could then instil in the students the importance of knowledge acquisition.
Nowadays, the process of acquiring knowledge is executed in several ways such as face-to-face classes, online lecture, virtual lessons, audio visual course and instructional software. It is a fact that listening to lesson when attending classes has become a tradition of more than a hundred years and represents authoritative exponents of Islamic orthodoxy.
This can be seen from what was practiced in the pondok and religious education of Malaya in the pre-modern period. In the past, the technique that was practiced in the traditional teaching and learning method such as in pondok system was already very much rooted in the Malay States. According to the pondok system, an Regional Seminar on Islamic Higher Educational Institutions SeIPTI obedient student is he who does not argue with the religious instruction of the teacher.
As such, students sit in circle halaqah around the teacher to listen to his religious instruction Awang Had, Shaghir contended that the system of education in pondok concentrates on learning by heart similar method is still being practiced in many pondoks until today with few adjustments. Such a traditional teaching and learning methods prompted the thinkers of the early 20th centuries in Malaya to introduce a new style of religious education.
The establishment of several newly-styled Arabic religious schools such as Madrasah al-Iqbal in SingaporeMadrasah Alhady in Malacca and Madrasah al-Mashoor al- Islamiyyah in Penang was a clear departure from the existing Arabic religious schools at that time.
At these new religious schools, for instance, chairs and tables were used in classroom to provide a comfortable environment of study. Unlike the new style Arabic religious schools, the traditional ones employed the conventional method of teaching and learning that was very much similar to the pondok education.
As far as contemporary Islamic education is concerned, two-way communication is regarded as one of the effective techniques to deliver lessons to the students. In a two-way communication, the student receives the message that is sent by the teacher and then responds to it. In other words, a two-way type of communication provides the opportunity of feedback for the teacher and the student. Thus, this technique may transform the environment of a classroom into student centred learning.
The technique is almost different from the practice of the traditional method which is teacher centered and which most of the time is a one-way communication.
In a one-way communication, the teacher sends out message or instruction which may whether receive a response or not. Teacher may find that the one-way communication is quite ideal to use at certain times for instance when addressing a group of students or when giving them instructions on assigned task.
Shalih maintained that a two-way communication method in teaching and learning was exhibited by Prophet Muhammad pbuh when he propagated Islam to his people during his time. He used catchy words or phrases that can attract the listeners and hence, giving full attention to his speech or teaching.
The use of those phrases shows the urgency of active listening and the importance of attention-attracting technique especially when delivering crucial messages to the audience. Catchy words that are coupled with correct body language that includes facial expression, gestures and postural language in a two-way communication would enhance the process of teaching and learning.
With the use of audio visual aids, the study of Islamic education would not be seen as dry and dull. Several other ways such as e-learning, collaborative and problem-based learning would also be useful to teach and learn the Islamic studies. These learning methods fall under active learning which can be divided into several categories. They are as follows: Technology and Creative Content, i.
IJTIHAD - Interpreting Islamic Principles - IslamiCity
Courseware, e-Learning and Mobile Learning. Learning Style and Multiple Intelligence. Assessment and Evaluation, i. Feedback on knowledge, skills, attitudes, and work products for future performances and learning outcomes.
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A study done by Wan Zulkifli and Mohd Arip on a selected group of students who learned Islamic and Asian Civilizations show their positive receptiveness towards the implementation of active learning. Class game, role playing, student debate, in person or online class discussion and movie watching, a few examples of activities to name, can be exercised to support active learning as its focus is on the responsibility of learning by the learners.
Student centred learning in higher education, especially in Islamic studies, is regarded as necessary today in order to create a new means of teaching and learning. This would be in line with the needs of modern generation who are tech savvy and prefer to learn via new learning styles. In the past several years a number of monumental changes have occurred in the classroom, with regard to instructional materials or tools.
Brown and Race have surveyed the materials at the disposal of teachers that can be utilized in the classroom. One of the staples of classroom material has been the roller blackboard which proved to be a reliable and alternative version of the static blackboard. The advantage of using a roller blackboard is that one can use it without having to erase previously-written material from the same lecture.
Of course the age of blackboards and chalk has almost ended now that most classrooms are fitted with whiteboards which utilize marker pens allowing teachers to use multi-colored markers to denote different things.
For example, in a Quranic tajwid recitation class, a teacher can write the Quranic verse in black, but then he can use red, green or blue markers for the tajwid symbols that are usually written above and below words of a verse. Alternatively, the whole verse can be downloaded from any of the Quran websites and shown to students on the class screen through a projector complete with all the necessary multi-colored tajwid symbols.
Through these, teachers can show students illustrated PowerPoint lecture notes, scanned documents, relevant pictures, video clips, Arabic calligraphy and even pages from Islamic heritage books, all of which make learning so much more interesting than if these instructional tools were not available.
In addition, teachers can also show students something on the Internet instantly if the classroom computer is equipped with a fast modem. For lecturers who teach in large lecture halls that may accommodate several hundred students, it is highly recommended that they use a cordless microphone, both to allow them free mingling or roaming around the lecture hall as they talk and are listened to by the students, as well as to give a chance to students in the rear seats to voice out their opinion and be heard by the rest of the students.
That switch perhaps can also be used to silence the noisy air-conditioner or ventilation system for a few minutes while students concentrate on watching and hearing a conversation between two or more people which is deemed relevant to what they are studying, such as watching a role play dialogue in an Arabic listening and speaking class. Instructional material does not just refer to electronic gadgets and equipment, but also includes things like maps, charts, posters, illustrations and diagrams.
When teaching Islamic history, for example, a map of the Arabian peninsular would be of great help in making students understand the location of various places referred to by the teacher, places where conflicts were won or lost, or where the Prophet Muhammad pbuh travelled, or trade routes used by Muslim traders in the past.