Relationship Between Population Growth & Economic Development | nanda nepali - salonjardin.info
The topic of Population and Development is linked to the controversial North- South debate over To clarify the importance of population issues in relation to sustainable development; United Nations Population Information Network ( POPIN). to use that information to ADVANCE the well-being of current and future . questions about the links between population, fertility, development. The relationship between population growth and economic development has been a topic under debate for a long time. Different economists have.
Population distribution across a country's different regions is influenced by the geographical spread of economic activity and opportunity. Most countries are committed in theory to balancing regional development, but are rarely able to do this in practice.
Governments able to spread employment opportunities throughout their nations and especially through their countrysides will thus limit the rapid and often uncontrolled growth of one or two cities. China's effort to support village-level industries in the countryside is perhaps the most ambitious of this sort of national programme.
Migration from countryside to city is not in itself a bad thing; it is part of the process of economic development and diversification. The issue is not so much the overall rural urban shift but the distribution of urban growth between large metropolitan cities and smaller urban settlements. A commitment to rural development implies more attention to realizing the development potential of all regions, particularly those that are ecologically disadvantaged See Chapter 6.
This would help reduce migration from these areas due to lack of opportunities. But governments should avoid going too far in the opposite direction, encouraging people to cove into sparsely populated areas such as tropical moist forests, where the land may not be able to provide sustainable livelihoods.
Interrelationships between population and development.
Demographic phenomena constitute the heart of the African Development problematique. They are the data that lead most analysts to project a continuing and deepening crisis in Africa. There is no doubt of the imperative and urgent need for a far reaching population policy to be adopted and vigorously implemented by African governments. One issue of relevance that requires further research is the use of the tax system as a means for controlling population growth and discouraging rural-urban migration.
To slow down population growth, should families without children be given a tax incentive or tax break? Should a tax penalty be imposed for each child after a fixed number of children, considering that the tax system has not solved the population migration problem?
From Liability to Asset When a population exceeds the carrying capacity of the available resources, it can become a liability in efforts to improve people's welfare. But talking of population just as numbers glosses over an important point: People are also a creative resource, and this creativity is an asset societies must tap. To nurture and enhance that asset, people's physical well-being must be improved through better nutrition, health care, and so on.
And education must be provided to help them become more capable and creative, skilful, productive, and better able to deal with day-to-day problems. All this has to be achieved through access to and participation in the processes of sustainable development. I noticed that you have tried to separate religion from the technological side of life. Is that not exactly, the mistake in the West in developing technology, without ethics, without religion?
If that is the case, and we have the chance to develop a new direction, should we not advise the group on technology to pursue a different kind of technology which has as its base not only the rationality, but also the spiritual aspect? Is this a dream or is this something we cannot avoid? Good health is the foundation of human welfare and productivity. Hence a broad-based health policy is essential for sustainable development. In the developing world, the critical problems of ill health are closely related to environmental conditions and development problems.
Interrelationships between population and development.
Malaria is the most important parasitic disease in the tropics, and its prevalence is closely related to wastewater disposal and drainage. Large dams and irrigation systems have led to sharp increases in the incidence of schistosomiasis snail fever in many areas.
Inadequacies in water supply and sanitation are direct causes of other widespread and debilitating diseases such as diarrhoeas and various worm infestations.
Though much has been achieved in recent years, 1. In this sense, they really require a developmental solution. In the developing world, the number of water taps nearby is a better indication of the health of a community than is the number of hospital beds. Other examples of links between development, environmental conditions, and health include air pollution and the respiratory illnesses it brings, the impact of housing conditions on the spread of tuberculosis, the effects of carcinogens and toxic substances, and the exposure to hazards in the workplace and elsewhere.
Many health problems arise from the nutritional deficiencies that occur in virtually all developing countries, but most acutely in low-income areas. Most malnutrition is related to a shortage of calories or protein or both, but some diets also lack specific elements and compounds, such as iron and iodine. Health will be greatly improved in low-income areas by policies that lead to the production of more of the cheap foods the poor traditionally eat - coarse grains and root crops.
These health, nutrition, environment, and development links imply that health policy cannot be conceived of purely in terms of curative or preventive medicine, or even in terms of greater attention to public health.
Integrated approaches are needed that reflect key health objectives in areas such as food production; water supply and sanitation: Beyond this, it is necessary to identify vulnerable groups and their health risks and to ensure that the socio-economic factors that underlie these risks are taken into account in other areas of development policy. WHO's 'Health for All' strategy should be broadened far beyond the provision of medical workers and clinics, to cover health-related interventions in all development activities.
Within the narrower area of health care, providing primary health care facilities and making sure that everyone has the opportunity to use them are appropriate starting points. Maternal and child health care are also particularly important. The critical elements here are relatively inexpensive and can have a profound impact on health and well-being.
The topic of population growth rates is, perhaps, one of the most complex population concepts to understand and teach. If death rates are falling and people are living longer, why will population growth continue? Answering such questions involves distinguishing between percentage rates of change and actual population numbers.
It also involves appreciating the population momentum of past population patterns, particularly the population growth impacts of the relatively youthful nature of the high population countries of the world. This learning module contains maps, tables and population pyramid graphs, as well as a sequenced set of student questions. Review the learning module on Population Growth Rates for possible use with a class that you teach.
After you have reviewed this learning module, answer the following questions: In what class level s and subject s could this teaching module be used? What prior learning would you plan for your students so that their study of this module is most beneficial? Would you be able to use it in your teaching? How might you organise your class to access the module?
What are some non-computer based ways in which the topic of population growth rates could be taught? Paper versions of many of the exercises in the Population Growth Rates learning module are located at the end of the on-line version. These can be downloaded and printed for class use. Next Population and sustainable development Sustainable development is a process through which people can satisfy their needs and improve their quality of life in the present but not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
For most people, aspiring to a better quality of life means improving their standards of living as measured by income level and use of resources and technology. However, sustainable development also requires equity. For example, economic and environmental goals will not be sustainable unless social goals — such as universal access to education, health care and economic opportunity — are also achieved.
At any level of development, human impact I on the environment is a function of population size Pper capita consumption C and the environmental damage caused by the technology T used to produce what is consumed. This relationship is often described as a formula: However, as standards of living rise in the South, the environmental consequences of population growth will increase.
The debate over the environmental challenges of population growth cannot be reduced to assigning blame. Patterns of consumption and resource use in the industrialised countries of the North are certainly responsible for much environmental degradation in both the North and South. However, growing populations, whatever their levels of consumption, also place a burden on resources and the environment.
Both current and new consumers need to address the consequences of their levels of consumption see Module 9. The difficulty in teaching about this issue is that the answers are neither simple nor complete.
The most obvious environmental impacts are usually local — such as the disappearance of forests and associated watersheds, soil erosion or desertification or the brown haze hovering over many cities. Less obvious are the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the decline of fish catches around the world and the pollution of land and water resources with chemicals and other hazardous materials.
The lack of data — including baseline data — to help researchers determine trends and accurately measure what is happening further complicates the issue. This lack of data reflects the relative youth of environmental science as an interdisciplinary field. Some trends are already obvious, however, particularly with regard to the resources on which human life depends: These trends also have major impacts on levels of energy consumption and urbanisation. The impact of population growth in rural areas can push communities into unsustainable practices, such as the burning and cutting down of tropical forests in order to plant crops, over-cropping and subsequent depletion of fragile arable land and over-pumping of groundwater.