Interracial marriages in 19th century India | UK news | The Guardian
As India celebrates 70 years of independence from the British, there is A history not solely defined by the Raj, but one that evolved during a Every time war broke out between the British and French in Europe, south India. The British weren't quite as standoffish in India as the history books may In the more loving relationships of this period, Indian wives often retired with of his journey to Europe in , described meeting in London several. The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between and The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations; Home and Information and.
From the early s, the dubashes moved from the peripheral farming areas of Madras and began to wield influence in the centre as members of the elite. They acted as the interpreter or broker between European Company men, private traders and native merchants, and their early role indicates that the interdependence between the Indian and British may have been on a firmer foundation than was commonly supposed.
While historical research into this subaltern figure is currently in its early stages, one nineteenth-century Tamil text, the Sarva-Deva-Vilasatrains a lens on the rich artistic life of the city, its indigenous leaders — including several named dubashes — and how both East and West mimicked each other.
Just as the English followed the dubashi trend of building garden houses in and around Madras, the dubashes constructed mansions and, imitating their colonial patrons, developed a taste for Western music and morning horse rides.
India–United Kingdom relations - Wikipedia
In the text, it describes how the dubashes rode "with numerous hounds and accompanied by English ladies". Although this image captures a pivotal moment and the intimacy of relations with the English, the narrator also criticises their foreign overlords and the way in which the colonial state was threatening to destabilise the position of the indigenous elite. There are other figures such as the banias from Kolkata who illustrate the complexity of such encounters between East and West, and who also suggest the potential that can arise when multiple relationships and individuals intersect.
After the Mughal Empire's decline inIndia was a leading manufacturing country in the world in the early 18th century. During 18th century, the East India Company began to gain greater influence in India. Following the Indian Mutiny ofwhere Indian sepoys rebelled against their British officers, the East India Company was dissolved the following year.
The assets of the British East India Company became so huge that the British government decided to step in. India served as the main base for the British Empire 's expansion across Asia and would remain the empire's most important colony until independence. Queen Victoria became Empress of India in From a small trading outpost, India became the jewel in the British crown.
British Raj — [ edit ] Further information: Inthe area, which included modern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, became "the Indian Empire" often known historically as the "British Raj" with British Monarch Queen Victoria proclaimed as " Empress of India " a title held by her successors until Partition of India created new entities out of the erstwhile British Raj: Dominion of India — [ edit ] Further information: King George VIwho as British Monarch had been " Emperor of India ", abandoned this title inand served as India's ceremonial head of state as 'King of India' in much the same way, he also served as 'King of Pakistan'.
In India became a Republic and the link with the British crown was severed. Republic of India since [ edit ] Further information: Rudyard Kipling reflected this position in his novels.
His books also exposed the gulf between the 'white' community and the 'Anglo-Indians', whose mixed race caused them to be considered racially 'impure'.
Top Government in India While there was a consensus that Indian policy was above party politics, in practice it became embroiled in the vicissitudes of Westminster. Successive viceroys in India and secretaries of state in London were appointed on a party basis, having little or no direct experience of Indian conditions and they strove to serve two masters.
From Empire to Independence: The British Raj in India 1858-1947
Edwin Montagu was the first serving secretary of state to visit India on a fact-finding mission in Broadly speaking, the Government of India combined a policy of co-operation and conciliation of different strata of Indian society with a policy of coercion and force. The empire was nothing if not an engine of economic gain. Pragmatism dictated that to govern efficiently and remuneratively, 1, Indian civil servants could not rule to million Indians without the assistance of indigenous 'collaborators'.
However, in true British tradition, they also chose to elaborate sophisticated and intellectual arguments to justify and explain their rule. On the one hand, Whigs and Liberals expounded sentiments most iconically expressed by TB Macaulay in Whether such a day will ever come I know not. Whenever it comes, it will be the proudest day in English history. For instance, tariff walls were raised to protect the Indian cotton industry against cheap British imports.
Top Financial gains and losses There were two incontrovertible economic benefits provided by India. It was a captive market for British goods and services, and served defence needs by maintaining a large standing army at no cost to the British taxpayer. However, the economic balance sheet of the empire remains a controversial topic and the debate has revolved around whether the British developed or retarded the Indian economy.
Controversy remains over whether Britain developed or retarded India's economy.How did Britain Conquer India? - Animated History
Among the benefits bequeathed by the British connection were the large scale capital investments in infrastructure, in railways, canals and irrigation works, shipping and mining; the commercialisation of agriculture with the development of a cash nexus; the establishment of an education system in English and of law and order creating suitable conditions for the growth of industry and enterprise; and the integration of India into the world economy.
Conversely, the British are criticised for leaving Indians poorer and more prone to devastating famines; exhorting high taxation in cash from an inpecunious people; destabilising cropping patterns by forced commercial cropping; draining Indian revenues to pay for an expensive bureaucracy including in London and an army beyond India's own defence needs; servicing a huge sterling debt, not ensuring that the returns from capital investment were reinvested to develop the Indian economy rather than reimbursed to London; and retaining the levers of economic power in British hands.
Top The Indian National Congress The foundation of the Indian National Congress in as an all India, secular political party, is widely regarded as a key turning point in formalising opposition to the Raj.
It developed from its elite intellectual middle-class confines, and a moderate, loyalist agenda, to become by the inter-war years, a mass organisation. It was an organisation which, despite the tremendous diversity of the sub-continent, was remarkable in achieving broad consensus over the decades. Also split within Congress were those who advocated violence and those who stressed non-violence.
Yet it was not a homogenous organisation and was often dominated by factionalism and opposing political strategies. This was exemplified by its splintering in into the so-called 'moderate' and 'extremist' wings, which reunited 10 years later. Another example were the 'pro-changers' who believed working the constitutional structures to weaken it from within and 'no-changers' who wanted to distance themselves from the Raj during the s.
There was also a split within Congress between those who believed that violence was a justifiable weapon in the fight against imperial oppression whose most iconic figure was Subhas Chandra Bose, who went on to form the Indian National Armyand those who stressed non-violence.
The towering figure in this latter group was Mahatma Gandhi, who introduced a seismic new idiom of opposition in the shape of non-violent non-cooperation or 'satyagraha' meaning 'truth' or 'soul' force'.
Gandhi oversaw three major nationwide movements which achieved varying degrees of success inand in