salonjardin.info - Stories from PA History
The life of the Indians reflected Stone Age backgrounds, especially in material tolerance led to significantly healthier relationships with the local Native tribes. Relationship with Native Americans. The citizens of the Pennsylvania tended to be nicer and tried to create more peace than other colonies did. Mainly because . America.4 As a result, the Pennsylvania Indian field is no longer unplowed. . people, their language and relationship-if any-to cultures known to Europeans.
Some Lenape leaders discussed the possible destruction of the Scandinavian colony a year before the Dutch came to conquer New Sweden and reclaim the South River in The Lenape's general mistrust of Europeans changed after the arrival of members of the Religious Society of Friends also known as Quakers or Friends from the British Isles in The two groups shared similar ideas about the world around them.
Just as the Lenape believed that they were kin to all things, Quakers believed in universal brotherhood derived through the spark of the divine, or Inner Light, within all people. Both people lived their faith everyday. The founder of the Quaker movement, George Fox, wrote his fellow believers that they should "walk in the Light, Life and Power and Wisdom of God" and "wait all in the Light for the Wisdom, by which all things were made. With it, use all the Lord's creatures to his glory, for which end they are created.
William Penn saw to it that the relationship between the Quakers and Lenape was established on the basis of mutual affection, respect and understanding. Even before he came to his colony, he wrote to them to explain his faith and its guiding principles especially pacifismget their permission to settle in their homeland, and tell them about his mission.
To demonstrate his sincerity, Penn sent gifts of trade goods to the Lenape. The proprietor charged the deputies he sent before him to have a translator read his letter and distribute the presents to his soon-to-be neighbors. According to Lenape culture, this was right.
This was how it was done. This kind of sharing was proper behavior for someone who truly was a brother. Penn's generosity and kindness showed them that he appreciated and understood them.
Penn had a vision for his colony. Pennsylvania was to be a "Holy Experiment.
Pennsylvania was to be a new society, not just a transplanted European society, but one in which the Native American inhabitants were also included.
The charter for Pennsylvania explained clearly that part of the Quaker mission in America was to bring the Indians "to the love of Civil Society and Christian Religion Additionally, the founder of the Quaker movement believed that his fellow believers were to travel to Indian villages and preach to them which they did.
Based on the Inner Light within them, the Indians would be moved to convert and become a part of this new, emerging society. When Penn arrived in his colony in late Octoberhe reinforced the Lenape's favorable view of him. He took great pains to deal fairly, generously and honestly with the native inhabitants of the land that he claimed as his own.
He personally met with them to purchase land, a practice memorialized in his legendary meeting with the Lenape along the banks of the Delaware River at Penn Treaty Park. The proprietor also made a genuine effort to understand the Lenape by learning their language.
At their invitation, he traveled to their villages and enjoyed their hospitality. During his stays in his colony, Penn enjoyed, attended and participated in many Lenape councils, feasts, festivals, recreational activities, and religious services. According to local legends, he ran foot races and wrestled with Lenape warriors.
Penn's interaction with the Indians conveyed a genuine affection for them and they felt the same way about him, calling him "Brother Miquon. His activities with the Lenape had such a significant impact that they have become part of oral histories of the Lenape, Shawnee and Iroquois as well as the white settlers' history of the region.
Native Americans of Pennsylvania
When Penn was preparing to leave his colony for the second and final time ina large delegation of Lenape, Conestoga, Shawnee, Conoy and others came to Pennsbury to wish him well.
The proprietor made himself the center, the heart and soul of Indian relations in his province.
He believed that the settlers and government of Pennsylvania would continue the relationship of mutual admiration, good will, and respect.
In his absence, he delegated the oversight of Indian affairs to trusted associates. Unfortunately not everybody who settled in Pennsylvania shared the same loving sentiments about the Native Americans as Penn had. More interested in worldly matters than their founder's vision, some Quakers and other settlers became obsessed with power, wealth and the expansion of their own economic opportunity. Gustavus Hesselius, Portrait of Lapowinsa, What he wanted in exchange for this was a guarantee from the Pennsylvania government that his people would always remain in possession of the Wyoming Valley.
His chief opponents were agents of the proprietary Penn family, who had their own designs on that land, and Iroquois Indians from New York, who claimed the land was theirs and that Teedyuscung's people lived there only with their approval. Well aware of the forces arrayed against him, Teedyuscung made a speech on October 20 to his Iroquois and colonial counterparts.
Speaking of the Wyoming Valley, he stated, "I sit there as a Bird on a Bow; I look about, and do not know where to go; let me therefore come down upon the Ground, and make that my own by a good Deed, and I shall then have a Home for ever. Teedyuscung died a few years later in a house fire set by unknown arsonists. Shortly thereafter an incoming tide of white settlers pushed his people out of the Wyoming Valley.
Initial excavation of McKees Rocks Mound, Teedyuscung's unhappy story reveals much about the history and fate of the Indians who originally inhabited the land that became Pennsylvania. His personal history testifies to the changes wrought in the Indians' lives by their encounter with Europeans. Teedyuscung was born among Delaware Indians who lived near modern Trenton, New Jersey, in close contact with colonial society.
Like many of his kin and neighbors, Teedyuscung grew up wearing European clothing and relying on iron axes and knives and other European-made goods for daily tasks. He learned to speak some English, converted to Christianity, and lived briefly in a missionary village on the Lehigh River.
But Teedyuscung did not like living under the spiritual or political supervision of his colonial neighbors, and so he joined other eastern Indians who moved to the Wyoming Valley in the s and s.
Although he had acculturated in many ways to the colonial world, Teedyuscung remained undeniably Indian and sought to preserve his independence from white society. Of course, Indians had not always faced the same difficult choices as Teedyuscung. Archaeological evidence documents their existence within modern Pennsylvania's borders as far back as 12, years ago, and over that vast expanse of time, Indian cultures developed and diversified in countless ways as they adapted to the landscape they inhabited.
Rather than being frozen in time before the arrival of Europeans, Indians were a constantly changing collection of distinctive cultural groups with different languages and customs. They borrowed from each other, improving their technologies for farming, fishing, hunting, and pottery making and developing the means of long distance travel and communication with each other. They traded and warred with each other long before Europeans entered the scene. In the Ohio Valley, distinct cultures that rose and fell in the first millennium A.
In the central portion of the state, other Indian peoples used the Susquehanna Valley as a highway of migration, trade, and communication between the Great Lakes and the Chesapeake Bay. In the east, Teedyuscung's forbearers in the Lehigh and Delaware Valleys mined rock quarries and traded with native peoples in coastal New England and the Hudson Valley.
Winter Trade, by Robert Griffing. Indians borrowed from and adapted to strangers long before they encountered the first Europeans, but these newcomers were different in important ways.
Native Americans in Early America and Pennsylvania – The Crucial Decade: s
They brought with them new technologies and goods that Indians valued highly. Indians gradually adopted European woven cloth, copper kettles, and sharp-edged iron tools as substitutes for their own native-made clothing, pottery, and stone tools. In exchange for these items, they gave the Europeans animal pelts, and, as time progressed, land.
This exchange set up an economic relationship in which the Indians became dependent on European trade, even as supplies of fur-bearing animals in their homelands diminished. Indebtedness to fur traders set in motion other changes, as they sold land to settle accounts, made war to acquire new supplies of furs, or moved elsewhere to avoid such entanglements with colonial society.
Diseases carried by Europeans also had a devastating impact on native communities, as did alcohol, acquired through the fur trade, which took a heavy toll on the Indians' physical and social well-being.
Artifacts from Conoy Indian Town Teedyuscung's people had experienced many of these changes by the time he rose to prominence in the mids.